Drupal blog posts http://tech.oeru.org/ en Upgrading a Docker-based Discourse Forum instance http://tech.oeru.org/upgrading-docker-based-discourse-forum-instance <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Upgrading a Docker-based Discourse Forum instance</span> <div class="field field-node--field-blog-tags field-name-field-blog-tags field-type-entity-reference field-label-above"> <h3 class="field__label">Blog tags</h3> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item field__item--discourse"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/19" hreflang="en">discourse</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--docker"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/16" hreflang="en">docker</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu 19/05/2022 - 14:45</span> <div class="field field-node--field-image field-name-field-image field-type-image field-label-hidden has-multiple"> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-1"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-05/Discourse-admin_page_upgrade_link.png?itok=SmTm00O2" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A sample of the admin page showing a Discourse administrator that an upgrade is pending, showing the web-upgrade link.&quot;}" role="button" title="A sample of the admin page showing a Discourse administrator that an upgrade is pending, showing the web-upgrade link." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image--Xhj9KyxIZY" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A sample of the admin page showing a Discourse administrator that an upgrade is pending, showing the web-upgrade link.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-05/Discourse-admin_page_upgrade_link.png?itok=iBEbWRyb" width="220" height="144" alt="A sample of the admin page showing a Discourse administrator that an upgrade is pending, showing the web-upgrade link." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-2"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-05/Discourse-upgrade_email_alert.png?itok=VBs3FoqS" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A sample of the email sent to Discourse admins by the Discourse system alerting them to a new pending upgrade.&quot;}" role="button" title="A sample of the email sent to Discourse admins by the Discourse system alerting them to a new pending upgrade." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image--Xhj9KyxIZY" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A sample of the email sent to Discourse admins by the Discourse system alerting them to a new pending upgrade.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-05/Discourse-upgrade_email_alert.png?itok=M4tLaS3O" width="220" height="140" alt="A sample of the email sent to Discourse admins by the Discourse system alerting them to a new pending upgrade." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-3"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-05/Discourse-backup_admin_page.png?itok=Lv0Hz0-Y" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A sample Discourse system backup administration page.&quot;}" role="button" title="A sample Discourse system backup administration page." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image--Xhj9KyxIZY" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A sample Discourse system backup administration page.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-05/Discourse-backup_admin_page.png?itok=KZaf9Y0c" width="220" height="144" alt="A sample Discourse system backup administration page." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-4"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-05/Discourse-web_upgrade.png?itok=xyJIWWoq" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A Discourse web upgrade status page, prior to initiating the upgrade.&quot;}" role="button" title="A Discourse web upgrade status page, prior to initiating the upgrade." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image--Xhj9KyxIZY" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A Discourse web upgrade status page, prior to initiating the upgrade.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-05/Discourse-web_upgrade.png?itok=-NQk807A" width="220" height="124" alt="A Discourse web upgrade status page, prior to initiating the upgrade." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-5"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-05/Discourse-web_upgrade_progress.png?itok=eAf0UUVc" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A Discourse web upgrade underway. &quot;}" role="button" title="A Discourse web upgrade underway. " data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image--Xhj9KyxIZY" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A Discourse web upgrade underway. &quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-05/Discourse-web_upgrade_progress.png?itok=Q6y7yjKe" width="220" height="136" alt="A Discourse web upgrade underway. " loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-6"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-05/Dicscourse-require_cli_upgrade.png?itok=VKj1mQll" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Sample of the message you see if a particular Discourse upgrade is too complicated for the web interface.&quot;}" role="button" title="Sample of the message you see if a particular Discourse upgrade is too complicated for the web interface." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image--Xhj9KyxIZY" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Sample of the message you see if a particular Discourse upgrade is too complicated for the web interface.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-05/Dicscourse-require_cli_upgrade.png?itok=dVBM-OW2" width="220" height="94" alt="Sample of the message you see if a particular Discourse upgrade is too complicated for the web interface." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p><a href="https://discourse.org">Discourse</a> is the world-leading online web-based forum. It's a superb, extremely mature-and-yet-cutting edge platform. It also happens to be Free and Open Source Software, which is why we, at the <a href="https://oerfoundation.org">OER Foundation</a>, use it.</p> <p>Like all good software, it's undergoing continuous improvement by its developer community who release fairly frequent - perhaps every couple weeks - updates. Luckily, keeping your Discourse forum up-to-date isn't particularly onerous.</p> <p>Upgrading a Discourse instance deployed via Docker (as all of ours are) follows one of two possible workflows. Both usually start with either a Discourse administrator logging into the Discourse site (which she/he might not do very often) and noticing on the default admin dashboard page (see the first attached screenshot) that there is a pending upgrade, usually with a 'click here to upgrade' link. Alternatively, if an administrator is not logged in (the system is aware of this) the system sends administrators for the site an email (see the second attached screenshot for a sample) alerting them all that an upgrade is pending, with a link to the upgrade page in the Discourse administration system.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-always-backup-first" href="#always-backup-first" name="always-backup-first" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Always backup first!</h2> <p>As any good system administrator knows, their users' data is of utmost importance. So, before proceeding with any upgrade, it's crucial to make a backup of your system to ensure that if everything goes pear-shaped, you can recover and get back to where you were.</p> <p>Normally, I consider it sufficient to take a Discourse 'backup' via the admin backup interface 'immediately before doing the upgrade' (see attached screenshot), leaving ''off'' the uploaded content, as this is unlikely to be affected or removed via the upgrade process, to save space. Doing this immediately prior to the upgrade minimises the chances that any users lose data (e.g. a recent post, in the space of time between the backup and the actual upgrade or even a post they're working on when the upgrade commences - if the latter happens, as long as they don't leave the page and wait for the forum to 'come back' after the upgrade, they should be able to proceed without losing anything... but there's a small chance they could be unlucky - be mindful of this and try to a) announce upgrades on the site prior to running them, and b) try to do so outside of your busiest hours, which should be easy to determine thanks to Discourse's superb analytics (also a feature of the default admin dashboard).</p> <p>After conducting the backup, you can do the upgrade.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-upgrade-workflows" href="#upgrade-workflows" name="upgrade-workflows" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Upgrade Workflows</h2> <p>You will ''usually'' have a straightforward 'point-and-click' web browser based upgrade process, but on occasion, you will click on the 'upgrade link' and end up on a page like 'upgrade is too complicated for the web interface' message (see attached screenshot). In that latter case, things get a little more complicated. Also, such upgrades can result in somewhat more downtime for the forum, so only conduct them when you have sufficient time.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-web-based-upgrade" href="#web-based-upgrade" name="web-based-upgrade" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Web-based upgrade</h3> <p>In most cases, when you click on the "Click here to upgrade" link, you'll be taken to a page that assesses the various components (the Discourse codebase, the Docker subsystems, and any additional functional plugins) making up your Discourse install and alerts you which of those components have a pending upgrade. This can sometimes take a while (the system is having to compare what you have on your server to the official up-to-date versions of those things on the web), but when done, the page will show you 'upgrade' buttons for the components with upgrades pending as per the attached sample upgrade pages screenshot.</p> <p>Once you've got those showing, you can click the 'Upgrade' button that's highlighted (if any - that one needs to be done first, prior to the others) and then the 'Start upgrade" operation for each one. Or, sometimes, you'll see an "Upgrade all" button at the top of the page, which applies all the pending upgrades in a single operation.</p> <p>Usually, in practice, this renders your Discourse forum unusable (it'll be in 'maintenance mode' from a user's perspective) for a few seconds to a few minutes, depending on the upgrade.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-command-line-launcher-upgrade" href="#command-line-launcher-upgrade" name="command-line-launcher-upgrade" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Command line 'launcher' upgrade</h3> <p>When the upgrade is more fundamental, usually involving the Docker subsystem, you sometimes don't have the option of a web-based upgrade. Instead of the upgrade web pages from the previous section, you get message like that shown in the next screenshot, which talks about running the upgrade from the command line using the <code>launcher</code> command and doing a 'rebuild' of the system.</p> <p>In that case, you need to be able to log into the host server (usually a remote cloud-based "Virtual Private Server" or VPS) - I always use SSH to do that <a href="/node/49">see these instructions</a> from a terminal on my Linux desktop - with suitable permissions (usually the ability to run 'sudo' commands, i.e. act as the administrative or 'root' user of that server).</p> <p>Once you're logged in as a user with 'sudo' privileges, you need to go to the Docker configuration directory for that instance of Discourse - in the OER Foundation's case, I have the convention of having the installation in the <code>/home/docker/</code> directory in a subdirectory with the same name as the as the site, e.g. forum.oeru.org. In that case, I'd enter</p> <p><code>cd /home/docker/forum.oeru.org</code></p> <p>Note that we don't use the default path for our Discourse installation (<code>/var/discourse</code>), so we're being rebels here. Doing an</p> <p><code>ls -l</code></p> <p>here should give a directory that looks a bit like this (you might not have the 'oeru'-related files) when listed:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="re5">-rw-rw-r--</span> <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">1099</span> Nov <span class="nu0">29</span> <span class="nu0">2019</span> LICENSE <span class="re5">-rw-r--r--</span> <span class="nu0">1</span> dave root <span class="nu0">8285</span> Jul <span class="nu0">24</span> <span class="nu0">2021</span> README.md <span class="re5">-rw-rw-r--</span> <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">258</span> Dec <span class="nu0">2</span> <span class="nu0">2019</span> README.oeru drwxrwxr-x <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">16</span> Nov <span class="nu0">29</span> <span class="nu0">2019</span> bin drwxrwxr-x <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">16</span> Apr <span class="nu0">15</span> <span class="nu0">23</span>:<span class="nu0">36</span> cids drwxrwxr-x <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">30</span> May <span class="nu0">19</span> 06:<span class="nu0">47</span> containers <span class="re5">-rwxrwxr-x</span> <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">11955</span> Apr <span class="nu0">15</span> <span class="nu0">23</span>:<span class="nu0">22</span> discourse-doctor <span class="re5">-rwxr-xr-x</span> <span class="nu0">1</span> dave root <span class="nu0">27132</span> Oct <span class="nu0">21</span> <span class="nu0">2021</span> discourse-setup drwxrwxr-x <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">192</span> Dec <span class="nu0">22</span> 04:<span class="nu0">43</span> image <span class="re5">-rwxrwxr-x</span> <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">23538</span> Apr <span class="nu0">15</span> <span class="nu0">23</span>:<span class="nu0">22</span> launcher drwxrwxr-x <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">120</span> Nov <span class="nu0">16</span> <span class="nu0">2021</span> samples drwxrwxr-x <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">22</span> Nov <span class="nu0">29</span> <span class="nu0">2019</span> scripts drwxrwxr-x <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">16</span> Nov <span class="nu0">29</span> <span class="nu0">2019</span> shared drwxrwxr-x <span class="nu0">1</span> dave dave <span class="nu0">866</span> Apr <span class="nu0">15</span> <span class="nu0">23</span>:<span class="nu0">22</span> templates drwxr-xr-x <span class="nu0">1</span> dave root <span class="nu0">130</span> Jan <span class="nu0">16</span> <span class="nu0">22</span>:<span class="nu0">42</span> tests</pre></div></div> <p>The script we're going to use is the <code>launcher</code> script, and we're going to use the site's configuration which, by our convention, will reside in <code>containers/app.yml</code>(you can see its contents by typing <code>less containers/app.yml</code> assuming your user has sufficient permissions to view it directly. If not, prepend <code>sudo</code> to your command.</p> <p>To run the upgrade, you have to complete two steps as suggested by the page you saw when you clicked on the upgrade link:</p> <p>First, ensure that the 'git' repository that was used to provide this set of files to begin with is up-to-date - if your user owns these files (as my 'dave' user does in the example above) then run this to avoid changing the ownership of the files:</p> <p><code>git pull</code></p> <p>If you don't own the files you'll need to run</p> <p><code>sudo git pull</code></p> <p>which should result in a fairly quick (a few seconds) request to the git server, pulling down files that have been changed by the developers since the last time you did a <code>git pull</code>... Note, if the pull fails, you may find that you've altered one or more files for some reason and that the change you've made would be clobbered by the pull. The easiest thing to do in that case is - for each file - to (prepending with <code>sudo</code> if required):</p> <p><code>cp [filename] [filename].bak</code></p> <p>so you have a backup copy of your changed file, and then issue (again, with <code>sudo</code> prepended if necessary):</p> <p><code>git checkout [filename]</code></p> <p>which reverts [filename] to its original git-distributed version. The <code>git pull</code> should now work.</p> <p>Second, simply type (again, prepending with <code>sudo</code> if required:</p> <p><code>./launcher rebuild app.yml</code></p> <p>This will initiate what can be a rather long process (perhaps 1 to as many as, say, 30 minutes, depending on the upgrade, the amount that needs to be downloaded, your server's network bandwidth, and a variety of other variables) which will involve downloading new Docker containers with Discourse code, as well as possibly a new PostgreSQL database container among others. Your Discourse will continue running as long as it can safely do so, but then the <code>launcher</code> script will shut down the containers and restart them. It might also be 'recompiling' aggregated resources used by Discourse, like various Ruby On Rails gems, icon files, style sheets (CSS), or Javascript files...</p> <p>Once it's done, you'll get the command prompt back. You're done! Have a look at your site and you should see you're up-to-date!</p> <p>You can log out of the server vai <code>CTRL-D</code> or typing <code>exit</code>.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-problems" href="#problems" name="problems" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Problems?</h3> <p>I have, on a few occasions, had an upgrade fail for some reason. If that happens, you should see an indicator of has caused the failure (in a few cases for me, it was the fact that the PostgreSQL database didn't have enough time to restart before the Discourse app tried to access it to run data schema upgrades, and failed as a result. Changing the 'timeout' value from 5 seconds to 60 seconds fixed it - looking on the <a href="https://meta.discourse.org">Meta Discourse</a> - Discourse's own Discourse used to discuss running Discourse - is a very good resource when trying to solve system-related problems. It's worth creating an account for yourself on it if you're going to be responsible for a Discourse instance!</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=51&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="sEqniUwHCHUWHihRflAm8YgWK0q2UAy7k0fiHG3-09Y"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Thu, 19 May 2022 02:45:12 +0000 dave 51 at http://tech.oeru.org Creating Linux shell users with sudo and SSH access http://tech.oeru.org/creating-linux-shell-users-sudo-and-ssh-access <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Creating Linux shell users with sudo and SSH access</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue 10/05/2022 - 11:33</span> <div class="field field-node--field-image field-name-field-image field-type-image field-label-hidden has-multiple"> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-1"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-05/DigitalOceanConsoleScreenshot.png?itok=KO2YM-KO" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Screenshot of Digital Ocean&#039;s browser-based console, logged into VPS as the root user.&quot;}" role="button" title="Screenshot of Digital Ocean&#039;s browser-based console, logged into VPS as the root user." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Screenshot of Digital Ocean&#039;s browser-based console, logged into VPS as the root user.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-05/DigitalOceanConsoleScreenshot.png?itok=4qAWYCEw" width="220" height="158" alt="Screenshot of Digital Ocean&#039;s browser-based console, logged into VPS as the root user." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-2"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-05/Screenshot%202022-05-10%20at%2013-44-16%20mesc.oerfoundation.org%20-%20DigitalOcean-modified.png?itok=FuNxpcjc" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Screenshot of Digital Ocean browser interface, viewing a VPS, showing the link for launching the &#039;console&#039;.&quot;}" role="button" title="Screenshot of Digital Ocean browser interface, viewing a VPS, showing the link for launching the &#039;console&#039;." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Screenshot of Digital Ocean browser interface, viewing a VPS, showing the link for launching the &#039;console&#039;.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-05/Screenshot%202022-05-10%20at%2013-44-16%20mesc.oerfoundation.org%20-%20DigitalOcean-modified.png?itok=F1e41LUo" width="220" height="155" alt="Screenshot of Digital Ocean browser interface, viewing a VPS, showing the link for launching the &#039;console&#039;." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-3"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-05/default-login-prompt-screenshot.png?itok=_AfI5XKT" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A default VPS login screen. Note, colours and fonts and sizes of things are likely to vary. &quot;}" role="button" title="A default VPS login screen. Note, colours and fonts and sizes of things are likely to vary. " data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A default VPS login screen. Note, colours and fonts and sizes of things are likely to vary. &quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-05/default-login-prompt-screenshot.png?itok=gS6CCN9A" width="220" height="115" alt="A default VPS login screen. Note, colours and fonts and sizes of things are likely to vary. " loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>With Linux servers, both local and in "the Cloud" (aka a Virtual Private Server or VPS), access is generally remote via a command line interface. This tutorial covers the process of creating normal shell (command line) users who have the ability to perform administrative tasks (via the 'sudo' - Super User DO - mechanism), as well as configuring that user to be able to log in from their workstation via SecureShell (SSH) without needing to enter a password (i.e. using public-private key pairs).</p> <p>To begin with, we need a Linux server to which we have administrative access. This can be direct access to a local Linux server on our own infrastructure, or a remote VPS for which we have the 'root' (administrative user) access, either via SSH (to a default root or unprivileged user created by the VPS provider) or via a browser-based console (which simulates sitting down at monitor/keyboard at the actual server itself).</p> <p>You'll log into your server either via your web browser (see attached images of the Digital Ocean VPS control page, with console link, and a browser-based console session, logged in as the 'root' user), or via SSH from your workstation. If you are on Linux or MacOS, you can use the in-built SSH client (you'll want to create an SSH key-pair for yourself first - on <a href="https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-set-up-ssh-keys-on-ubuntu-20-04">Linux</a>, on a <a href="https://pagely.com/quickstart/firehose/ssh/mac/generating-key-pairs/">Mac</a>, or on <a href="https://www.howtogeek.com/762863/how-to-generate-ssh-keys-in-windows-10-and-windows-11/">Windows</a>. Note: I normally leave the 'passphrase' blank - it's slightly less secure especially if your SSH keys are on a computer you share with other people, but it's a <strong>lot</strong> more convenient, and a trade-off I'm willing to make!</p> <p>You can address your server either by its IP address (either IPv4, e.g. 137.184.84.159, or if you're one of the rare far-sighted people with an IPv6 address, e.g. 2604:a880:4:1d0::4a2:c000, you can use that instead).</p> <p>If you'd like to create your own VPS using a cloud infrastructure provider like Digital Ocean, and perhaps even configure a domain name to point to it (so you can use that domain to address your server rather than an IP address, see the <a href="/node/42">first couple sections of this tutorial</a>.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-logging-in" href="#logging-in" name="logging-in" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Logging in</h2> <p>Logging into your VPS will depend on whether you're using a console or logging in via SSH. If via a console, you'll just need to enter the username (possibly 'root') and password you set when creating the VPS. If via SSH, you'll run</p> <p><code>ssh [your server IPv4 or IPv6]</code></p> <p>followed by the ENTER key (that'll be true for any line of commands I provide). If your VPS is configured for passwordless logins, you shouldn't need a password. If not, you'll need the password you created when provisioning the VPS. Usually, it's either one or the other. If you're running Putty, you'll enter the same details into the Putty interface.</p> <p>In most cases, if you've never logged into that VPS via SSH previously, you're likely to see a notification like this right after entering the command (with your VPS' hostname and IP address and its own ECDSA key fingerprint - it'll be unique to each server):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">The authenticity of host <span class="st_h">'sandbox.milll.ws (163.12.232.115)'</span> can<span class="st_h">'t be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:0doRcAm9kAZjraohX+CeCwv1Yv6bIbzAYUSTrWGc9Y4. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])? </span></pre></div></div> <p>Type 'yes' and ENTER. You should only ever see this once for any IP or domain name you use to access this particular VPS.</p> <p>Once you're logged in, you'll see a command line prompt, probably somewhat similar to that of the attached screenshot. The name of the VPS you've logged into and your username will normally (by convention) be specified in your command prompt. In the attached screenshot, you can see my prompt is <code>dave@mesc:~$</code>. That means I'm logged in as user <code>dave</code>, the VPS's short-name is <code>mesc</code> (it's long name is <code>mesc.oerfoundation.org</code> which is too long to include in a prompt) and my current location is <code>~</code>, the 'tilde' character which is short-hand on a UNIX shell for the user's 'home directory'. On a Linux VPS, it's likely to be in <code>/home/[username]</code> or <code>/home/dave</code> in my user's case.</p> <p>Note, on a UNIX system, directories (aka folders) are delineated with a forward slash, <code>/</code>. Windows is the only system that uses a backslash <code>\</code> to delineate directories.</p> <p>The <code>$</code> at the end of the prompt tells you you're an 'unprivileged user'. If you were logged in as an admin user, usually 'root', you'd see a <code>#</code> in your prompt to remind you that you've got unlimited power within the VPS, and to use it carefully!</p> <p>If your prompt doesn't show your username, you can find out what user you're logged in as by typing</p> <p><code>whoami</code></p> <h2><a id="user-content-creating-a-regular-user" href="#creating-a-regular-user" name="creating-a-regular-user" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Creating a regular user</h2> <p>Let's say you're creating a user with the username of 'fiafia' - <em>by convention, usernames on Linux systems are all lower case letters, without spaces or punctuation</em>. Assuming your user has 'sudo' privileges, you can create the user like this (you will be asked to enter your user's password the first time you use <code>sudo</code>, and again after not using it for a while, usually 10 minutes):</p> <p><code>sudo adduser fiafia</code></p> <p>That will request that you enter additional information, like the user's full name, a phone number, and even an office room number (you can leave out any unnecessary information), and it will create a home directory for the user, <code>/home/fiafia</code> in this case.</p> <p>It will also require you to set a password for the new user. If you're not sure how to generate a good random password, you can user our <a href="/node/43">short tutorial</a>. Should you want to change it you can set it like this - your user will need to know their password in order to run <code>sudo</code> commands:</p> <p><code>sudo passwd $U</code></p> <p>which will instruct you to enter a strong password twice (to guard against typos).</p> <p>To give fiafia the ability to log in via SSH and to allow her to run administrative commands, her user needs to be added to several 'groups', members of which get additional privileges:</p> <p><code>sudo adduser fiafia admin</code><br /><code>sudo adduser fiafia sudo</code></p> <p>Those groups, <code>ssh</code>, <code>admin</code>, and <code>sudo</code> will confer those abilities on your new user.</p> <p>If you're working with VPS running a version of Ubuntu prior to 22.04 (like 20.04) or perhaps a Debian variant, you might also need to add the user to the 'ssh' group (it appears that with 22.04, Ubuntu have decided the ssh group was unnecessary and have removed it).</p> <p>Just to be safe, if you run this on 22.04 too, it might fail to complete (saying something like "there's no 'ssh' group"), but that's not a problem.</p> <p><code>sudo adduser fiafia ssh</code></p> <p>If you wanted to create several users, you could avoid typing in each user's name so many times by instead setting a variable in the shell, say <code>U</code>, to the username and then reference the value of U, which you do by putting a '$' in front of it, like <code>$U</code>. So to create another new user, say 'masina', you could do the same thing like this, and copy and paste the following into your terminal window (If pasting via 'CTRL-V' doesn't work, try 'SHIFT+CTRL-V', similarly copy via 'SHIFT+CTRL-C'):</p> <p><code>U=masina</code><br /><code>sudo adduser $U</code><br /><code>sudo adduser $U admin</code><br /><code>sudo adduser $U sudo</code></p> <p>(Note: to repeat these and the following commands for another user, just assign a new username to U, <code>U=[newusername]</code> and re-paste the same commands with <code>$U</code>.)</p> <p>Because, by following this tutorial, your user is likely to log in without using their password, it makes sense to put it somewhere safe where they can find it. I usually do it this way (replace [password] with the same password you used for the previous command):</p> <p><code>sudo echo "[password]" &gt; /home/$U/.password</code></p> <p>which, in this case, will put the password in a 'hidden' file (files or directories with names starting with a '.' are called hidden files or directories - they won't appear in a normal directory listing, e.g. <code>ls</code> or <code>ls -l</code>. If you want to see them, try <code>ls -la</code> where the 'a' means 'all') called <code>.password</code> in the user masina's home directory, <code>/home/masina</code>.</p> <p>You will also want to make sure that your new user has permission to remove that file. The right way to do that is to transfer ownership of the file to that user:</p> <p><code>sudo chown $U /home/$U/.password</code></p> <h2><a id="user-content-creating-ssh-keys-on-your-vps" href="#creating-ssh-keys-on-your-vps" name="creating-ssh-keys-on-your-vps" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Creating SSH keys on your VPS</h2> <p>Now we can create an SSH key pair for this new user on this VPS. Helpfully, in the process, the <code>.ssh</code> (hidden) directory for the file into which to put that user's <em>workstation</em> public SSH key to allow them passwordless logins from that workstation:</p> <p><code>sudo su $U</code></p> <p>That command allows your user to "become" the user $U and execute the following commands (the 'sudo' isn't needed here as that user is working in her/his own space with her/his own files):</p> <p><code>ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048</code></p> <p>This command uses the SSH keygen utility to create a 2048bit keypair: a public and a private key which provide the means for engaging in full encrypted (and extremely secure!) interactions with a remote server via the SSH protocol. You'll have to hit "ENTER" three times to complete the process (as I said above, I normally leave the passphrase blank).</p> <p>Once that is done, you can create and edit a new file:</p> <p><code>nano ~/.ssh/authorized_keys</code></p> <p>In that file, you can copy and paste (without spaces on either end) that user's <em>workstation's</em> <strong>public</strong> ssh key (<em>never publish</em> a private key anywhere!), save and close the file (use CTRL-X).</p> <p>The quickest way to do that on a Linux computer is by running the command (back on your workstation!):</p> <p><code>cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub</code></p> <p>which will print the contents of your public key file below it, so you can easily highlight and copy &amp; paste it (remember, a copy from a Linux terminal is SHIFT+CTRL+C).</p> <p>When you're done pasting the public key into your <code>authorized_keys</code> file, save and exit the editor (CTRL-X) and type</p> <p><code>exit</code></p> <p>The <code>exit</code> will return you to your own user. You can use CTRL-D (slightly faster to type) to do the same thing.</p> <p>From that point, that user should be able to SSH to the VPS via <code>ssh [username]@[domain name]</code> without needing to enter a password.</p> <p>These instructions use 'sudo' in front of commands because I assume you're using a non-root user. The instructions will still work fine even if you're logged in as 'root'.</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=49&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="36KGpyt9VtFQVtBToeZLjHkiDNTzg-D6hmycl2L8HYQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Mon, 09 May 2022 23:33:58 +0000 dave 49 at http://tech.oeru.org Install Rocket.Chat on Ubuntu 20.04 via Docker Compose http://tech.oeru.org/install-rocketchat-ubuntu-2004-docker-compose <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Install Rocket.Chat on Ubuntu 20.04 via Docker Compose</span> <div class="field field-node--field-blog-tags field-name-field-blog-tags field-type-entity-reference field-label-above"> <h3 class="field__label">Blog tags</h3> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item field__item--ubuntu-linux"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">ubuntu linux</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--_004"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/75" hreflang="en">20.04</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--rocketchat"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/18" hreflang="en">rocket.chat</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--mongodb"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/14" hreflang="en">mongodb</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--docker"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/16" hreflang="en">docker</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--docker-compose"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/49" hreflang="en">docker-compose</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu 03/03/2022 - 13:00</span> <div class="field field-node--field-image field-name-field-image field-type-image field-label-hidden has-multiple"> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-1"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-03/RC-launchscreen.png?itok=JnRkklyO" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Rocket.Chat initial &#039;launch&#039; screen requesting admin user credentials.&quot;}" role="button" title="Rocket.Chat initial &#039;launch&#039; screen requesting admin user credentials." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Rocket.Chat initial &#039;launch&#039; screen requesting admin user credentials.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-03/RC-launchscreen.png?itok=OjBXKXXC" width="220" height="160" alt="Rocket.Chat initial &#039;launch&#039; screen requesting admin user credentials." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-2"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-03/RC-confirmationscreen.png?itok=uO0TVfx-" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;The confirmation screen after initial registration, awaiting the email from Rocket.Chat for registering your instance.&quot;}" role="button" title="The confirmation screen after initial registration, awaiting the email from Rocket.Chat for registering your instance." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;The confirmation screen after initial registration, awaiting the email from Rocket.Chat for registering your instance.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-03/RC-confirmationscreen.png?itok=xQ-NAp1u" width="220" height="160" alt="The confirmation screen after initial registration, awaiting the email from Rocket.Chat for registering your instance." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-3"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2022-03/RC-logs_confirming_instance_running.png?itok=7tPCbNHo" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;After logging in, you can look at your instances logs and either the &#039;info&#039; option or the logs can verify the details of your instance. &quot;}" role="button" title="After logging in, you can look at your instances logs and either the &#039;info&#039; option or the logs can verify the details of your instance. " data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;After logging in, you can look at your instances logs and either the &#039;info&#039; option or the logs can verify the details of your instance. &quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2022-03/RC-logs_confirming_instance_running.png?itok=dY2I6OoA" width="220" height="158" alt="After logging in, you can look at your instances logs and either the &#039;info&#039; option or the logs can verify the details of your instance. " loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>This post is a companion to our <a href="https://vimeo.com/684017454">video tutorial on installing Rocket.Chat 4.x on an Ubuntu 20.04 server via Docker Compose</a>.</p> <p>We start with a <a href="/setting-oeru-style-virtual-ubuntu-2004-server-docker-compose">Docker Compose-configured server</a>. You can also see our video tutorials on how to create one: <a href="https://vimeo.com/684028258">complete</a>, or <a href="https://vimeo.com/677523362">starting from a DigitalOcean 'snapshot'</a>.</p> <p>From that starting point, we can install Rocket.Chat - which, incidentally, is a full-featured messaging service, similar to more heavily marketed Slack, Discord, or Microsoft Teams, but <a href="https://github.com/RocketChat/">free and open source</a>, and self-hostable (other free and open source options include Mattermost and Element/Matrix among others, by Rocket.Chat is the OERF's preference). You can also purchase it as <a href="https://rocket.chat">Software-as-a-Service</a>. It's also great for all sorts of <a href="https://rocket.chat/enterprise/integrations">integrations</a>. There <a href="https://rocket.chat/install">many ways</a> you can interact with Rocket.Chat. It can be accessed via any modern web browser, and there are dedicated desktop applications for Linux, Microsoft Windows, and Apple MacOS, as well as mobile applications for Apple iOS and Android devices.</p> <p>To complete this tutorial, you will need a fully qualified [domain name] (or subdomain) pointing to your server, a [port] number for your service - 8080 or 7080 are good options so long as they're not already in use by other services on the same server, and a set of authenticating SMTP credentials so you can configure your Rocket.Chat to send email (by default, Rocket.Chat uses TOTP (Time-based One-Time Password) sent via email for extra security).</p> <h2><a id="user-content-nginx-reverse-proxy" href="#nginx-reverse-proxy" name="nginx-reverse-proxy" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Nginx reverse proxy</h2> <p>The first step is to set up the Nginx reverse proxy configuration to allow. You should create a file in <code>/etc/nginx/sites-available</code> with your [domain name] like this:</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/[domain name]</code></p> <p>and fill it with this (replacing [domain name] and [port] appropriately:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">server <span class="br0">{</span> listen <span class="nu0">80</span>; listen <span class="br0">[</span>::<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="nu0">80</span>; server_name <span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>;   <span class="co0">## Access and error logs.</span> access_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>_access.log; error_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>_error.log;   include includes<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt.conf;   location <span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="kw3">return</span> <span class="nu0">301</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="re1">$request_uri</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> root <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>html; <span class="br0">}</span>     server <span class="br0">{</span> listen <span class="nu0">443</span> ssl; listen <span class="br0">[</span>::<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="nu0">443</span> ssl; <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/[domain name]/fullchain.pem;</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/[domain name]/privkey.pem;</span> <span class="co0"># temporary cert and private key, to be superseded by those provided by Let's Encrypt above.</span> ssl_certificate <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem; ssl_certificate_key <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>private<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl-cert-snakeoil.key; ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2; ssl_dhparam <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs<span class="sy0">/</span>dhparam.pem;   keepalive_timeout 20s;   root <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>html; index index.html index.htm; server_name <span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>;   <span class="co0">## Access and error logs.</span> access_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>_access.log; error_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>_error.log;   client_max_body_size 100m;   include includes<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt.conf;   location <span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> proxy_pass http:<span class="sy0">//</span>127.0.0.1:<span class="br0">[</span>port<span class="br0">]</span>; <span class="co0"># use 8080 or 7080 if in doubt.</span> proxy_http_version <span class="nu0">1.1</span>; proxy_set_header Upgrade <span class="re1">$http_upgrade</span>; proxy_set_header Connection <span class="st0">"upgrade"</span>; proxy_set_header Host <span class="re1">$http_host</span>; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host <span class="re1">$host</span>; proxy_set_header X-Real-IP <span class="re1">$remote_addr</span>; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For <span class="re1">$proxy_add_x_forwarded_for</span>; proxy_set_header X-Forward-Proto http; proxy_set_header X-Nginx-Proxy <span class="kw2">true</span>; proxy_redirect off; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="br0">}</span></pre></div></div> <p>Save and close that file. We now need to create the 'dhparam.pem' if it doesn't exist create it like this:</p> <p><code>sudo openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem 2048</code></p> <p>After doing that, you can test Nginx's configuration:</p> <p><code>sudo nginx -t</code></p> <p>If you don't get any errors or warnings, you can activate the new configuration:</p> <p><code>sudo service nginx reload</code></p> <p>You server should now successfully respond to your [domain name], but it'll redirect to HTTPS using the default (self-signed) certificates that are valid as far as Nginx is concerned, but your browser won't let you access the page due to those inappropriate certificates. You can test it by putting http://[domain name] into your browser and seeing if it redirects you to https://[domain name] and a 'bad certificate` (or similar) page.</p> <p>To fix that, we can now generate a Let's Encrypt certificate which will be valid.</p> <p><code>sudo letsencrypt certonly --webroot -w /var/www/letsencrypt -d [domain name]</code></p> <p>Since this is your first time running the <code>letsencrypt</code> script, you'll be asked for a contact email (so the Let's Encrypt system can warn you if your certificates are going to be expiring soon!) - you will need to provide an admin email for this. You can also opt in to allowing them to get anonymous statistics from your site (I do).</p> <p>Once you've done that, the Let's Encrypt system will verify that you (the person requesting the certificate) also controls the server that's requesting it (using the details specified in the <code>/etc/nginx/includes/letsencrypt.conf</code> file, along with data that the letsencrypt script writes into a special file in the <code>/var/www/letsencrypt</code> directory) and, all going well, you'll see a "Congratulations!" message telling you that you have new certificates for your [domain name].</p> <p>Then you can re-edit your Nginx confguration file:</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/[domain name]</code></p> <p>and comment out the default certificates and uncomment the [Domain]-specific certificates, like this (we'll assume you've already got your [domain name] substituted!):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"> ssl_certificate <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt<span class="sy0">/</span>live<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>fullchain.pem; ssl_certificate_key <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt<span class="sy0">/</span>live<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>privkey.pem; <span class="co0"># temporary cert and private key, to be superseded by those provided by Let's Encrypt above.</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem;</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key;</span> ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2; ssl_dhparam <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs<span class="sy0">/</span>dhparam.pem;  </pre></div></div> <p>Once you've got that going, you again check to make sure your Nginx config is valid:</p> <p><code>sudo nginx -t</code></p> <p>and apply your configuration changes:</p> <p><code>sudo service nginx reload</code></p> <p>If you now go to http://[domain name] in your browser, you should be redirected to https://[domain name] and you shouldn't get any certificate errors, although you might get a "502" error because the service that reverse proxy configuration is trying to send you to doesn't yet exist! That's what we're expecting.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-rocketchat-containers-via-docker-compose" href="#rocketchat-containers-via-docker-compose" name="rocketchat-containers-via-docker-compose" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Rocket.Chat containers via Docker Compose</h2> <p>Next, we have to create the Rocket.Chat container recipe for Docker Compose. Create a Docker directory if it doesn't yet exist and a [domain name]-specific directory:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir -p /home/docker/[domain name]</code></p> <p>and go there</p> <p><code>cd home/docker/[domain name]</code></p> <p>and create a file:</p> <p><code>nano docker-compose.yml</code></p> <p>putting this into it, replacing [domain name], [port], and the authenticating SMTP details: [smtp username], [smtp password], [smtp servername], and [smtp port]. Note the comment in the file as well if you're not sure about smtp:// or the [smtp port] to use.</p> <p>This configuration specifies MongoDB version 4.2, which is the <a href="https://docs.rocket.chat/quick-start/installing-and-updating/other-deployment-methods/manual-installation/extras/mongo-versions">recommended version</a> to use for Rocket.Chat right now. And the current version of Rocket.Chat at the time of this writing is 4.5.0.</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">version: <span class="st_h">'2'</span> services: mongo: restart: unless-stopped image: mongo:<span class="nu0">4.2</span> volumes: - <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>mongodb<span class="sy0">/</span>data:<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span>db - <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>backups<span class="sy0">/</span>mongodb:<span class="sy0">/</span>backups command: mongod <span class="re5">--oplogSize</span> <span class="nu0">128</span> <span class="re5">--replSet</span> rs0 <span class="co0"># this container's job is just run the command to initialize the replica set.</span> <span class="co0"># it will run the command and remove himself (it will not stay running)</span> mongo-init-replica: image: mongo:<span class="nu0">4.2</span> command: <span class="st_h">'bash -c "for i in `seq 1 30`; do mongo mongo/rocketchat --eval \"rs.initiate({ _id: '</span><span class="st_h">'rs0'</span><span class="st_h">', members: [ { _id: 0, host: '</span><span class="st_h">'localhost:27017'</span><span class="st_h">' } ]})\" &amp;&amp; s=$$? &amp;&amp; break || s=$$?; echo \"Tried $$i times. Waiting 5 secs...\"; sleep 5; done; (exit $$s)"'</span> depends_on: - mongo rocketchat: restart: unless-stopped image: rocketchat<span class="sy0">/</span>rocket.chat:4.5.0 command: <span class="kw2">bash</span> <span class="re5">-c</span> <span class="st_h">'for i in `seq 1 30`; do node main.js &amp;&amp; s=$$? &amp;&amp; break || s=$$?; echo "Tried $$i times. Waiting 5 secs..."; sleep 5; done; (exit $$s)'</span> ports: - <span class="st0">"127.0.0.1:[port]:3000"</span> depends_on: - mongo environment: - <span class="re2">MONGO_URL</span>=mongodb:<span class="sy0">//</span>mongo<span class="sy0">/</span>rocket - <span class="re2">MONGO_OPLOG_URL</span>=mongodb:<span class="sy0">//</span>mongo<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="kw3">local</span> - <span class="re2">ROOT_URL</span>=https:<span class="sy0">//</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="co0"># the SMTP port is likely to be 587 or 465, and instead of smtp:// you might need to use smtps:// (note the 's' for secure).</span> - <span class="re2">MAIL_URL</span>=smtp:<span class="sy0">//</span><span class="br0">[</span>smtp username<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="br0">[</span>smtp password<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="br0">[</span>smtp servername<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="br0">[</span>smtp port<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span> volumes: - <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>uploads:<span class="sy0">/</span>app<span class="sy0">/</span>uploads</pre></div></div> <p>Save and close that file. You can then start the Docker containers by invoking Docker Compose</p> <p><code>docker-compose up -d &amp;&amp; docker-compose logs -f</code></p> <p>This command will 'pull' any missing reference containers from hub.docker.com (the default central place where many Docker containers are stored by their developers) and launch them in "daemon mode" (the '-d' flag achieves that) on your server, so that they'll keep running until you stop them. After it's done with the launching, Docker Compose will display the logging data being put out by both the MongoDB and Rocket.Chat containers.</p> <p>You can issue a <code>CTRL-C</code> to cancel out of the logs view - it won't affect the running Rocket.Chat instance.</p> <p>You can also stop Rocket.Chat by issuing:</p> <p><code>docker-compose stop</code></p> <p>and verify it status (running or not) via</p> <p><code>docker-compose ps</code></p> <p>If you then go https://[domain name] in your browser, you should get the 'initial user' start up page as shown in the attached screenshot. After filling in your content and content related to your instance, you should receive an email from both your Rocket.Chat instance and from the Rocket.Chat developers showing your instance is registered.</p> <p>You can then log in (by default, you will have to wait for an email with a TOTP code to log in) you will be able to change the multitude of settings, behaviours, and integrations that Rocket.Chat supports. See its <a href="https://docs.rocket.chat/">user documentation</a> for more information on configuring and managing your Rocket.Chat instance. Note, there are many other sources for information on Rocket.Chat configuration - search engines will help you.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-backing-up-your-data" href="#backing-up-your-data" name="backing-up-your-data" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Backing up your data</h2> <p>To back up your Rocket.Chat installation, you will need to store both the content of your MongoDB and any files or other content uploaded.</p> <p>Backing up the uploaded content involves regular file backups of the uploaded files and the docker-compose.yml configuration. Preferably, these should be stored off the original server, i.e.</p> <p>We have developed a script for backing up Docker-based MongoDB installations. You can install it as follows. First, we'll make a place to put the backup script:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir /home/data/scripts &amp;&amp; sudo cd /home/data/scripts</code></p> <p>and then clone (i.e. download) our git repository:</p> <p><code>sudo git clone https://git.oeru.org/oeru/mongobackup.git</code></p> <p>which will create a directory <code>/home/data/scripts/mongobackup</code> - go into it</p> <p><code>sudo cd /home/data/scripts/mongobackup</code></p> <p>and create a backup configuration (substituting your domain name!) and edit the file:</p> <p><code>sudo cp default-mongo.conf-sample default-mongo.conf</code></p> <p><code>sudo nano default-mongo.conf</code></p> <p>The content should look like this:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># dump backup directories</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># for backup archives</span> <span class="re2">BU_DIR</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>path to backup archive store<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="co0"># working directories</span> <span class="co0"># from docker-compose.yml </span> <span class="re2">BU_DIR_HOST</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>path on host to mapped mongo container backup <span class="kw2">dir</span><span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">BU_DIR_DOCK</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>path on mongo container to backup <span class="kw2">dir</span><span class="br0">]</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># Docker Compose details</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># dir containing the docker-compose.yml</span> <span class="re2">DC_DIR</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>docker-compose directory <span class="kw1">for</span> mongo container<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="co0"># name of the database container</span> <span class="re2">DC_CONTAINER</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>name of mongo container <span class="kw1">in</span> docker-compose.yml<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># Reporting</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># email address to send reports to, and subject</span> <span class="re2">EMAIL</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>admin email<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">EMAIL_SUBJ</span>=<span class="st0">"[email subject to distinguish this email from others]"</span></pre></div></div> <p>The values you set should look like this (replace [domain name] appropriate) - you can leave the original '#' comments in place if you want:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="re2">BU_DIR</span>=<span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>backup<span class="sy0">/</span>mongodb <span class="re2">BU_DIR_HOST</span>=<span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>backups<span class="sy0">/</span>mongodb <span class="re2">BU_DIR_DOCK</span>=<span class="sy0">/</span>backups <span class="re2">DC_DIR</span>=<span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>docker<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">DC_CONTAINER</span>=mongo <span class="re2">EMAIL</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>an email that you receive<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">EMAIL_SUBJ</span>=<span class="st0">"MongoDB Backup for Rocket.Chat: [domain name]"</span></pre></div></div> <p>save and close that file and then we have to create the location for the backups to be stored (and, ideally, transferred to the remote backup location along with the uploaded files and docker-compose.yml file):</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir -p /home/backup/mongodb</code></p> <p>Note, that the email alerts depend on you having configured your server properly to send out email as per our instructions for <a href="/setting-oeru-style-virtual-ubuntu-2004-server-docker-compose">setting up a Docker Compose server</a>.</p> <p>You can test to make sure this all works by running</p> <p><code>sudo /home/data/scripts/mongobackup/dbbackup-mongo --hourly</code></p> <p>You should see a bunch of file paths as things are backed up - if you see nothing, you may have an error in your configuration.</p> <p>To verify a backup has been made, you can run</p> <p><code>ls -l /home/backup/mongodb/</code></p> <p>and you should see a series of files (probably 3), named after each 'database' in the mongo server, with the name 'mongo-hourly' in them followed by the server's current date and time and a <code>.tgz</code> suffix.</p> <p>If it works, copy the 'cron' task to your <code>/etc/cron.d</code> directory:</p> <p><code>sudo cp dbbackup-mongo-cron /etc/cron.d/</code></p> <p>after which, you should get hourly (and daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly) backups that tidy up after themselves...</p> <h2><a id="user-content-upgrading-your-installation" href="#upgrading-your-installation" name="upgrading-your-installation" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Upgrading your installation</h2> <p>From time to time, assuming you've registered your Rocket.Chat installation, you will receive notifications that a new version of Rocket.Chat is available. You can upgrade at your convenience by creating a dated copy of your docker-compose.yml file - you can use this convenient little command (assuming you're in /home/docker/[domain name]):</p> <p><code>sudo cp docker-compose.yml docker-compose.yml-$(date +"%Y%m%d")</code></p> <p>and make sure you disable your instance</p> <p><code>sudo docker-compose stop rocketchat</code></p> <p>and then run a mongodb backup - the easiest way to do that is to run</p> <p><code>sudo /home/data/scripts/mongobackup/dbbackup-mongo --hourly</code></p> <p>as described above. Also, assuming the data involved is relatively small compared to your available storage space, you can copy your current mongo data to make sure you can recover quickly if necessary (after stopping mongodb!):</p> <p><code>sudo docker-compose stop mongo</code></p> <p><code>sudo cp -a /home/data/[domain name]/mongodb/data /home/data/[domain name]/mongodb/data-$(date +"%Y%m%d")</code></p> <p>Then, to do the upgrade: edit <code>docker-compose.yml</code> to update the Rocket.Chat (4.5.0 in this tutorial) container number to the new version.</p> <p><code>sudo nano docker-compose yml</code></p> <p>at which point you can run:</p> <p><code>sudo docker-compose up -d &amp;&amp; sudo docker-compose logs -f</code></p> <p>which will pull the newer Rocket.Chat container, and run it, along with MongoDB, which will automatically upgrade your instance if possible (if it succeeds, you'll see a message similar to the attached log image showing the Rocket.Chat version info in the log messages), and you'll be up and running with a new version, job done!</p> <p>Enjoy your free (in both senses of the word) world-class messaging platform!</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=48&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="jITUDdDMJ8my5zsFfo33TLH5pOTlPih-fIF4KVSqOA8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Thu, 03 Mar 2022 00:00:52 +0000 dave 48 at http://tech.oeru.org BBB Tutorial Schedule http://tech.oeru.org/bbb-tutorial-schedule <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">BBB Tutorial Schedule</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon 13/12/2021 - 10:49</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>The schedule for the <a href="https://samoaksi.ws">Samoa Knowledge Society Initiative</a> (SKSI) BigBlueButton Tutorial is as follows:</p> <h3><a id="user-content-before-the-tutorial" href="#before-the-tutorial" name="before-the-tutorial" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Before the tutorial</h3> <p>Please create an account on the <a href="https://forum.milll.ws">forum</a> we have set up for the MESC Lifelong Learning Lab. (This free and open source software forum application is powered by <a href="https://discourse.org">Discourse</a>).</p> <p>It would be great if you could introduce yourself in the Introductions forum before the tutorial commences.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-start-0930" href="#start-0930" name="start-0930" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Start 09:30</h3> <p>We will all meet virtually on the OER Foundation's BigBlueButton in the SKSI room which you'll find at <a href="https://oer.nz/sksi">https://oer.nz/sksi</a></p> <p>You should be able to participate with any internet connected device with a stable connection and a modern browser.</p> <p>If you can, please use headphones as this reduces background noise from your computer which can affect others' ability to hear.</p> <p>If you have a slow connection or old computer, you might find it easier to avoid sharing your video, or even participate only as a 'listener'. You will still be able to ask questions via the BigBlueButton 'public chat'</p> <h3><a id="user-content-duration" href="#duration" name="duration" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Duration</h3> <p>The length of the tutorial is likely to be <em>3 or more hours</em>, based on previous runs. Its length will depend, in part, on interaction with participants and the speed and availability of external resources.</p> <p>We will also stop for short breaks during the tutorial.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-introduction" href="#introduction" name="introduction" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Introduction</h2> <p>MESC's ACEO ICT &amp; Media, Nehru Mauala, will introduce the session.</p> <p>We will be working through a <a href="/node/46">BBB tutorial developed specifically for SKSI</a>. Feel free to use that as a reference while we go through the process it describes. It will also serve as a reference for those participating in the tutorial afterwards.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-questions-during-the-tutorial" href="#questions-during-the-tutorial" name="questions-during-the-tutorial" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Questions during the tutorial</h3> <p>I will try ask participants if they have any questions periodically through the tutorial, but you are welcome to post any questions you have using BigBlueButton's 'public chat' any time - I'll be able to see them, and hopefully answer them while they're still pertinent to the context.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-what-is-bigbluebutton" href="#what-is-bigbluebutton" name="what-is-bigbluebutton" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>What is BigBlueButton?</h3> <p>We'll provide a <a href="https://docs.bigbluebutton.org/#a-brief-overview-of-bigbluebutton">quick overview of what BigBlueButton actually is</a>, what it's designed to do, and for whom.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-what-you-need-to-know-before-you-start" href="#what-you-need-to-know-before-you-start" name="what-you-need-to-know-before-you-start" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>What you need to know before you start!</h3> <p>First of all, you who are participating in this tutorial should know: <strong>you do not need to remember what we're doing today</strong>. It's complicated to be sure. Just watch the process and let it 'wash over you' - the tutorial is to give you a sense of what is involved, but if you undertake setting up BBB yourselves, you'll have my <a href="/node/24">detailed online tutorial</a> to help you along.</p> <p>Some of these details will only be available after creating your Digital Ocean server instance. Others you can determine prior to starting.</p> <h4><a id="user-content-server" href="#server" name="server" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Server</h4> <p>We'll need to know some details about our server, some of which will only be available after we create the server, like the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses assigned to it.</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="br0">[</span>IPv4<span class="br0">]</span> = <span class="br0">[</span>IPv6<span class="br0">]</span> = <span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span> = bbbdemo.milll.ws <span class="br0">[</span>Admin email<span class="br0">]</span> = webmaster<span class="sy0">@</span>milll.ws <span class="br0">[</span>Non-Root username<span class="br0">]</span> = dave</pre></div></div> <h4><a id="user-content-email-settings" href="#email-settings" name="email-settings" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Email settings</h4> <p>We will need the details of an "authenticating email account" that we can use to send email from the BigBlueButton service, and from the server itself.</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="br0">[</span>SMTP server<span class="br0">]</span> = about.oerfoundation.org <span class="br0">[</span>SMTP port<span class="br0">]</span> = <span class="nu0">587</span> <span class="br0">[</span>SMTP security<span class="br0">]</span> = StartTLS <span class="br0">[</span>SMTP username<span class="br0">]</span> = demosmtp<span class="sy0">@</span>milll.ws <span class="br0">[</span>SMTP password<span class="br0">]</span> = 7TLM6qGoqZXHfkDmkh6 <span class="br0">[</span>Outgoing email<span class="br0">]</span> = notifications<span class="sy0">@</span>milll.ws</pre></div></div> <h3><a id="user-content-creating-a-server" href="#creating-a-server" name="creating-a-server" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Creating a server</h3> <p>We will allocate a new virtual server using Digital Ocean (this is only one of many possible suppliers), costing US$24 per month.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-configuring-your-servers-domain" href="#configuring-your-servers-domain" name="configuring-your-servers-domain" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Configuring your server's domain</h3> <p>We will assign a domain name to the server - in this case, we'll use <code>bbbdemo.milll.ws</code> - and we'll use the Domain Name Server configuration tools of a local 'Domain name registrar', Metaname. This is only one of many thousands of registrars around the world.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-preparing-your-server" href="#preparing-your-server" name="preparing-your-server" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Preparing your server</h3> <p>Installing software and configuring it to prepare for Docker containers.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-installing-bigbluebutton" href="#installing-bigbluebutton" name="installing-bigbluebutton" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Installing BigBlueButton</h3> <p>This involves downloading a version control repository - using the market leading version control tool, 'git' (which is also open source software) - containing installation and configuration scripts and Docker container recipes made available by the BigBlueButton developer community.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-configuring-bigbluebutton" href="#configuring-bigbluebutton" name="configuring-bigbluebutton" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Configuring BigBlueButton</h3> <p>We will configure our instance of BigBlueButton and then build custom Docker containers for each of the 21 individual services that together make up a BigBlueButton.</p> <p>This process can take an hour, so we will shift to a separate instance of the BBB system that I set up by the same process earlier.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-testing-bigbluebutton" href="#testing-bigbluebutton" name="testing-bigbluebutton" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Testing BigBlueButton</h3> <p>We'll have a look at BigBlueButton in action, setting up an initial administrative user, looking at the logs to assist with debugging, and give participants a chance to try the new instance!</p> <h3><a id="user-content-discussing-future-steps" href="#discussing-future-steps" name="discussing-future-steps" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Discussing future steps</h3> <p>Due to the time constraints of this tutorial, there lots of extra details we could discuss, but we might save those for a future follow-up tutorial. Things like</p> <ul><li>how BigBlueButton recordings work</li> <li>how to add extra disk space to store things like recordings</li> <li>how to back up your recordings and user/room database securely and off-server</li> <li>how to upgrade your BigBlueButton instance</li> <li>how to keep your Ubuntu server secure and up-to-date</li> </ul><p>and many other potential questions.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-after-the-tutorial" href="#after-the-tutorial" name="after-the-tutorial" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>After the tutorial</h2> <p>After the tutorial, you are welcome to review this post as well as the <a href="/node/24">full self-guided tutorial for installing BigBlueButton</a> on which this tutorial is based.</p> <p>You are also welcome to ask questions related to the tutorial and any attempts you make to create your own BigBlueButton instance on our <a href="https://forum.milll.ws/t/bigbluebutton-discussion/22">Tutorial Support forum</a>.</p> <p>Many thanks for your participation!</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=47&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="Y87W_fGuKnG-DWuUXkKidH-pJoAaAGQKjUbkUIvGWpw"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Sun, 12 Dec 2021 21:49:43 +0000 dave 47 at http://tech.oeru.org Installing BigBlueButton on an OERu Docker Server http://tech.oeru.org/installing-bigbluebutton-oeru-docker-server <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Installing BigBlueButton on an OERu Docker Server</span> <div class="field field-node--field-blog-tags field-name-field-blog-tags field-type-entity-reference field-label-above"> <h3 class="field__label">Blog tags</h3> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item field__item--bigbluebutton"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/84" hreflang="en">BigBlueButton</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--ubuntu-linux"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">ubuntu linux</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--_004"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/75" hreflang="en">20.04</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--docker"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/16" hreflang="en">docker</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--docker-compose"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/49" hreflang="en">docker-compose</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--postgresql"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/20" hreflang="en">postgresql</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--postfix"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/66" hreflang="en">postfix</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--nginx"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/30" hreflang="en">nginx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--lets-encrypt"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/17" hreflang="en">let&#039;s encrypt</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed 10/11/2021 - 15:42</span> <div class="field field-node--field-image field-name-field-image field-type-image field-label-hidden has-multiple"> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-1"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-26%20at%2012-02-53%20Create%20Droplets%20-%20DigitalOcean.png?itok=RFCxKkbH" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Digital Ocean &#039;Droplet&#039; creation screen showing options selected for a BBB server&quot;}" role="button" title="Digital Ocean &#039;Droplet&#039; creation screen showing options selected for a BBB server" data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Digital Ocean &#039;Droplet&#039; creation screen showing options selected for a BBB server&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-26%20at%2012-02-53%20Create%20Droplets%20-%20DigitalOcean.png?itok=qpszFHwz" width="106" height="220" alt="Digital Ocean &#039;Droplet&#039; creation screen showing options selected for a BBB server" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-2"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-22%20at%2012-42-19%20bbbtest%20milll%20ws%20-%20DigitalOcean.png?itok=9s5Cj-8F" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Performance graphs for a Digital Ocean &#039;Droplet&#039; configured to run BBB.&quot;}" role="button" title="Performance graphs for a Digital Ocean &#039;Droplet&#039; configured to run BBB." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Performance graphs for a Digital Ocean &#039;Droplet&#039; configured to run BBB.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-22%20at%2012-42-19%20bbbtest%20milll%20ws%20-%20DigitalOcean.png?itok=Sy3JvvuB" width="220" height="166" alt="Performance graphs for a Digital Ocean &#039;Droplet&#039; configured to run BBB." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-3"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-22%20at%2012-42-52%20milll%20ws%20-%20Metaname.png?itok=eILrt0_H" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;The Metaname DNS configuration for the milll.ws domain.&quot;}" role="button" title="The Metaname DNS configuration for the milll.ws domain." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;The Metaname DNS configuration for the milll.ws domain.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-22%20at%2012-42-52%20milll%20ws%20-%20Metaname.png?itok=8iNSxMhC" width="220" height="166" alt="The Metaname DNS configuration for the milll.ws domain." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-4"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-23%20at%2014-20-22%20BigBlueButton.png?itok=vRbjT27h" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;The Greenlight front-end (providing user management and &#039;room&#039; configuration) for BigBlueButton.&quot;}" role="button" title="The Greenlight front-end (providing user management and &#039;room&#039; configuration) for BigBlueButton." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;The Greenlight front-end (providing user management and &#039;room&#039; configuration) for BigBlueButton.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-23%20at%2014-20-22%20BigBlueButton.png?itok=4W4E__KP" width="220" height="144" alt="The Greenlight front-end (providing user management and &#039;room&#039; configuration) for BigBlueButton." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-5"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-30%20at%2023-04-07%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room.png?itok=ofBw87DD" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Joining a BBB session, you get the option of using a microphone to participate or being a &#039;listen-only&#039; participant.&quot;}" role="button" title="Joining a BBB session, you get the option of using a microphone to participate or being a &#039;listen-only&#039; participant." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Joining a BBB session, you get the option of using a microphone to participate or being a &#039;listen-only&#039; participant.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-30%20at%2023-04-07%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room.png?itok=RsOTQSIE" width="220" height="133" alt="Joining a BBB session, you get the option of using a microphone to participate or being a &#039;listen-only&#039; participant." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-6"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-30%20at%2023-04-22%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room%20-%20echo%20test.png?itok=H8WlXV4f" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;If you select &quot;microphone&quot;, you will next be asked to speak into it and do an &#039;echo test&#039; to calibrate BBB&#039;s echo cancellation algorithms.&quot;}" role="button" title="If you select &quot;microphone&quot;, you will next be asked to speak into it and do an &#039;echo test&#039; to calibrate BBB&#039;s echo cancellation algorithms." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;If you select &quot;microphone&quot;, you will next be asked to speak into it and do an &#039;echo test&#039; to calibrate BBB&#039;s echo cancellation algorithms.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-30%20at%2023-04-22%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room%20-%20echo%20test.png?itok=KvueJqpL" width="220" height="133" alt="If you select &quot;microphone&quot;, you will next be asked to speak into it and do an &#039;echo test&#039; to calibrate BBB&#039;s echo cancellation algorithms." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-7"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-30%20at%2023-04-49%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room-webcam.png?itok=pEnZWxzO" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;And you can share your webcam feed, too. &quot;}" role="button" title="And you can share your webcam feed, too. " data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;And you can share your webcam feed, too. &quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-30%20at%2023-04-49%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room-webcam.png?itok=tXwJ7Cpf" width="220" height="133" alt="And you can share your webcam feed, too. " loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-8"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-26%20at%2015-03-34%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room-withModeratorMenu.png?itok=wkyM4MSu" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;BigBlueButton conversation window in a browser, with the moderator tools open, showing link to breakout rooms and other moderation functions.&quot;}" role="button" title="BigBlueButton conversation window in a browser, with the moderator tools open, showing link to breakout rooms and other moderation functions." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;BigBlueButton conversation window in a browser, with the moderator tools open, showing link to breakout rooms and other moderation functions.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-26%20at%2015-03-34%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room-withModeratorMenu.png?itok=tsVPmMgZ" width="220" height="143" alt="BigBlueButton conversation window in a browser, with the moderator tools open, showing link to breakout rooms and other moderation functions." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-9"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-26%20at%2015-00-54%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room.png?itok=55K_wxG1" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;BigBlueButton in effect with 3 participants (all the author from different devices). Note the public chat.&quot;}" role="button" title="BigBlueButton in effect with 3 participants (all the author from different devices). Note the public chat." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;BigBlueButton in effect with 3 participants (all the author from different devices). Note the public chat.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-11/Screenshot%202021-11-26%20at%2015-00-54%20The%20OERu%20BigBlueButton%20-%20Home%20Room.png?itok=j1O8G0e-" width="220" height="143" alt="BigBlueButton in effect with 3 participants (all the author from different devices). Note the public chat." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>This tutorial was developed for the <a href="https://samoaksi.ws/">Samoan Knowledge Society Initiative</a>, in which the OER Foundation is very pleased to be involved. (Update 2022-02-10: we have also created a <a href="137.184.84.159">video tutorial</a> based on this written tutorial)</p> <p><a href="https://bigbluebutton.org">BigBlueButton</a> (BBB) is a full-featured video conferencing system designed for large scale remote learning at the university level. In some ways, BBB goes beyond feature parity with widely used proprietary video conferencing systems like Zoom or Microsoft Teams, Webex, or Google Hangouts. It's main differences are that BBB</p> <ul><li>was designed from the gound up for educational use, and</li> <li>is Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and anyone can install it (as we describe in this tutorial) at no cost other than whatever cost you pay for hosting the application and a bit of your time.</li> </ul><p>You can read all about BigBlueButton and how it works using the <a href="https://docs.bigbluebutton.org">excellent documentation</a> provided by its development community.</p> <p>There are no per-user license fees (or <em>any</em> fees), and your users don't need to install special software, vastly simplifying its adoption: BBB works brilliantly on any desktop computer, laptop, or mobile device (tablet or phone) with a modern web browser that implements the <a href="https://webrtc.org">WebRTC</a> open web standard (which is all modern browsers).</p> <p>The <a href="https://github.com/bigbluebutton/">source code for BBB's internal components, and its many ancillary tools</a> is available for anyone to learn from or improve - that's the fundamental benefit of FOSS. Since the outbreak of COVID19, the team at a small Ottowa, Canada-based company, Blindside Networks, has been working tirelessly with the BBB community to improve the BBB code, which is being used all over the world by millions of people every day.</p> <p>This tutorial walks you through provisioning and building your own BigBlueButton instance on a server running <a href="https://ubuntu.com/download/server">Ubuntu GNU/Linux</a> - version 20.04 is the Long Term Support (LTS) version as of this writing - using <a href="https://www.docker.com/docker-community">Docker</a> containers for the various software services and components, with the containers managed by <a href="https://docs.docker.com/compose/">Docker Compose</a>.</p> <p><em>Table of contents</em></p> <ul class="table-of-contents"><li> <p><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#references">References</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#copying-and-pasting">Copying and pasting</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#information-you-need-to-know">Information you need to know</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#preferences">Preferences</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#set-up-your-virtual-server">Set up your virtual server</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#configure-your-domain-to-point-at-your-server">Configure your Domain to point at your Server</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#best-practice-access-your-server-as-a-non-root-user">Best Practice: access your server as a non-root user</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#a-few-post-install-updates">A few post-install updates</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#update-the-servers-hosts-file">Update the server's hosts file</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#firewall-configuration">Firewall Configuration</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#install-postfix-so-the-server-can-send-email">Install Postfix so the server can send email</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#email-test">Email test</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#install-nginx-webserver-and-lets-encrypt-tools">Install Nginx webserver and Let's Encrypt tools</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#set-up-coturn-certificates">Set up COTURN certificates</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#set-up-nginx-reverse-proxy-configuration">Set up Nginx Reverse Proxy Configuration</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#extra-security-with-dhparampem">Extra security with dhparam.pem</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#install-docker">Install Docker</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#install-docker-compose">Install Docker-compose</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#git-clone-bbb-docker-repository">Git-Clone BBB Docker repository</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#configure-your-bbb">Configure your BBB</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#fix-minor-configuration-error-that-blocks-jodconverter">Fix minor configuration error that blocks JODConverter</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#build-your-bbb">Build your BBB</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#visit-your-new-bbb">Visit your new BBB</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#create-an-admin-user">Create an admin user:</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#run-your-first-conference">Run your first conference</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#next-steps">Next Steps</a></p> </li> </ul><h2><a id="user-content-introduction" href="#introduction" name="introduction" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Introduction</h2> <h3><a id="user-content-references" href="#references" name="references" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>References</h3> <p>For this tutorial, we are using a <a href="https://digitalocean.com">Digital Ocean</a> 'Droplet' as our cloud server. You can use an almost identical process to provision a server from any one of a thousand other commodity GNU/Linux cloud hosting providers.</p> <p>To demonstrate the process of defining a sub domain and its IPv4 and IPv6 addresses (via A and AAAA records respectively) I'm using my preferred local domain registrar <a href="https://metaname.net">Metaname</a> (based here in Christchurch, New Zealand, as am I. I know the developer/owner of the service and I trust him). You can use any domain registrar that gives you the ability to configure your 'DNS zone file'. Some of might have your own DNS server or institutional name servers, in which case you might have to request these changes be made on your behalf.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-copying-and-pasting" href="#copying-and-pasting" name="copying-and-pasting" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Copying and pasting</h3> <p>We will be providing a bunch of command lines that you can copy and paste into a terminal on the computer you're using to access your virtual server. Links like</p> <p><code>this one</code></p> <p>are intended for you to copy and paste into the command line. On Linux, please note that in some cases if "CTRL-V" doesn't work to paste, try using "CTRL+SHIFT+V" (that's because in some terminals, "CTRL+V" had a pre-existing purpose as terminals have been around since long before desktops and 'copy-paste" were invented and the arbitrary CTRL-C, CTRL-X, CTRL-V key combos were chosen by Microsoft without any consideration for prior art). Similarly, if you want to copy <em>from</em> a terminal, you might need to use "CTRL+SHIFT+C". Try it.</p> <p>When we ask you edit a file (using the editor you choose to assign to the EDIT shell variable below), we expect you to complete the recommended changes, and then <em>save the file</em> and exit back to the command line.</p> <p>We'll aim to show you what to change using a 'code' box:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">Like this one <span class="kw2">which</span> is suitable <span class="kw1">for</span> multi-line content <span class="br0">(</span>like what you <span class="kw2">find</span> <span class="kw1">in</span> a <span class="kw2">file</span><span class="br0">)</span></pre></div></div> <h2><a id="user-content-information-you-need-to-know" href="#information-you-need-to-know" name="information-you-need-to-know" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Information you need to know</h2> <p>Info you need to have handy to complete this tutorial:</p> <ul><li>You need to know the IPv4 address of your server. Token: [IPv4] - it'll be in the form of nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where nnn = 0-254, example value 143.110.228.88</li> <li>If your server has one, you need to know its IPv6 address. Token: [IPv6] - it'll be in the form of hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh where h = 0-9a-f, i.e. a hex value, example 2604:a880:4:1d0::402:b000</li> <li>You need to have a domain name (or a sub domain name) to point at your server's IPv4 and IPv6. Token: [Domain], example domain bbbtest.milll.ws (in this case, bbbtest is the subdomain of the milll.ws domain)</li> <li>The email address your server should send status or admin-related email to. Token [Admin email], example webmaster@[Domain]</li> <li>You'll need a set of authenticating SMTP account settings including - these can be used both on the host and in the BBB installation: <ul><li>[SMTP server] - the domain name or IP address of an existing SMTP server, e.g. about.oerfoundation.org (our one), or smtp.googlemail.com,</li> <li>[SMTP port] - the port number for the service you're using. It'll usually be one of 587 or 465. Older, unauthenticated SMTP servers used to use port 25, but that's now blocked by most ISPs due to its abuse by spammers.</li> <li>[SMTP security] - usually this'll be something like 'SSL' (usually associated with port 465) or 'StartTLS' (usually associated with port 587).</li> <li>[SMTP username] - the username - often an email address - for the authenticating SMTP service, and lastly,</li> <li>[SMTP password] - the password accompanying the username.</li> </ul></li> <li>You'll want an email address that you can check to send test emails to: token [Test email], e.g. <a href="mailto:you@youremailprovider.tld">you@youremailprovider.tld</a>, and finally</li> <li>You'll want a 'from' email address that users of your system will see when they get emails from you. Token: [Outgoing email], e.g. <a href="mailto:notifications@milll.ws">notifications@milll.ws</a>.</li> </ul><h2><a id="user-content-preferences" href="#preferences" name="preferences" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Preferences</h2> <p>You'll need to copy and paste the following lines into any terminal you're using to complete this tutorial, so that that session is aware of your preferred values:</p> <p><code>EDIT=$(which nano)</code></p> <p><code>SITE=bbbtest.milll.ws</code></p> <p>We're going to reference these periodically in the following process, so it's important you set these correctly. To verify them, you can run this in any terminal at any time to verify that the values are still defined and current:</p> <p><code>echo "Our variables = $EDIT and $SITE"</code></p> <h2><a id="user-content-set-up-your-virtual-server" href="#set-up-your-virtual-server" name="set-up-your-virtual-server" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Set up your virtual server</h2> <p>You'll need to log into your cloud service provider's dashboard - in our case, we've used DigitalOcean. That means pointing our browser to <a href="https://digitalocean.com">https://digitalocean.com</a> and either using "Log In" (if we already have an account) or "Sign Up" (if we don't).</p> <p>Once you're logged in, you'll want to go to 'Create' and select 'Droplets' (Digital Ocean calls each of their virtual servers a "Droplet").</p> <p>We've included a screenshot of the Create Droplet page, with the relevant options selected. They are as follows:</p> <ul><li>Choose an image: we choose 'Ubuntu 20.04 LTS'</li> <li>Choose a plan: we choose 'Basic' <ul><li>for CPU options: we choose 'Premium AMD with NVMe SSD'</li> <li>for the size, we choose either the '$24/mo' (choose the '$48/mo' option if you want to be able to support large groups, like 100+ simultaneous participants).</li> </ul></li> <li>Choose a datacenter region: we choose 'San Franciso, zone 3' (which we've determined to be in the 'centre of the internet', i.e. the most central point to give the best website performance to a global audience. You might want to try a different place depending on your location in the globe and your audience).</li> <li>VPC Network - we just leave the default.</li> <li>Select additional options: we check 'IPv6' and 'Monitoring' but <em>not</em> User data.</li> <li>Authentication: if we have added one or more SSH keys to our DigitalOcean profile select 'SSH keys'. If not, you can select 'Password'. It's far more efficient and secure to use SSH whereever possible.</li> <li>We're ony creating 1 Droplet and we Choose a hostname of [Domain]</li> <li>We don't need to add any tags</li> <li>We <em>won't</em> Add backups.</li> </ul><p>Then we can <code>Create Droplet</code>...</p> <p>When the Droplet is finished, we can get the [IPv4] and [IPv6] addresses.</p> <p>We can also either log in via the command line from a local GNU/Linux or UNIX (e.g. MacOS) terminal or via a graphical SSH client (on Microsoft Windows, most people use Putty) via <code>ssh root@[IPv4]</code> or <code>ssh root@[IPv6]</code> (replacing those tokens with their actual IPv4 or IPv6 addresses). If we've set a key, we should get logged in without the need to enter any passwords. If not, we have to enter a password provided by DigitalOcean.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-configure-your-domain-to-point-at-your-server" href="#configure-your-domain-to-point-at-your-server" name="configure-your-domain-to-point-at-your-server" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Configure your Domain to point at your Server</h2> <p>Once you have selected and registered your domain with a domain registrar - we are using Metaname - you can set up (usually through a web interface provided by the registrar)</p> <ul><li>an "A Record" which associates your website's name (your [Domain], e.g. milll.ws, or a subdomain of that domain, e.g. bbb.milll.ws, where 'bbb' is the subdomain part) to the IPv4 address of your server. You should just be able to enter your server's IPv4 address, the domain name (or sub-domain) you want to use for your server.</li> <li>if your registrar offers it it's also important to define an IPv6 record, which is called an "AAAA Record"... you put in the same domain name or subdomain and then your IPv6 address instead of your IPv4 one.</li> </ul><p>I've attached an screenshot of the Metaname interface for configuring these DNS zone records.</p> <p>You might be asked to set a "Time-to-live" (which has to do with the length of time Domain Name Servers are asked to "cache" the association that the A Record specifies) in which case you can put in 3600 seconds or an hour depending on the time units your interface requests... but in most cases that'll be set to a default of an hour automatically.</p> <p>Once your domain A and AAAA records are configured, you should be able to log into your server via <code>ssh root@[Domain]</code>, or, for example, <code>ssh root@bbb.milll.ws</code>. Although it should be instant, depending on your registrar, it might take as long as a few hours (even 24) for your domain name assignments to propogate through the DNS network and be available on your computer.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-best-practice-access-your-server-as-a-non-root-user" href="#best-practice-access-your-server-as-a-non-root-user" name="best-practice-access-your-server-as-a-non-root-user" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Best Practice: access your server as a non-root user</h3> <p>You should be able to test that your A and AAAA Records have been set correctly by logging into your server via SSH using your domain name rather than the IPv4 or IPv6 address you used previously. It should (after you accept the SSH warning that the server's name has a new name) work the same way your original SSH login did. On Linux, you'd SSH via a terminal and enter <code>ssh root@[domain name]</code>. I think you can do similar on MacOS and on Windows, I believe people typically use software called <a href="https://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/latest.html">Putty</a>...</p> <p>But this will log you into your server as the 'root' user.</p> <p>It's not considered good practice to access your server as root (it's too easy to completely screw it up). Best practice is to create a separate 'non-root' user who has 'sudo' privileges and the ability to log in via SSH. If you are <em>currently logged in as 'root'</em>, you can create a normal user for yourself via (replace [username] with your chosen username):</p> <p><code>U=[username]</code><br /><code>adduser $U</code></p> <p>You will be required to set a password for the user here. Then you can add the new user to several relevant groups that confer the required administrative capabilities.</p> <p><code>adduser $U ssh</code><br /><code>adduser $U admin</code><br /><code>adduser $U sudo</code></p> <p>If you want to change the password for user [username] you can run:</p> <p><code>passwd $U</code></p> <p>then become that user temporarily (note, the root user can 'become' another user without needing to enter a password) and create an SSH key and, in the process, the <code>.ssh</code> directory (directories starting with a '.' are normally 'hidden') for the file into which to put your public SSH key:</p> <p><code>su $U</code><br /><code>ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048</code><br /><code>nano ~/.ssh/authorized_keys</code></p> <p>and in that file, copy and paste (without spaces on either end) your <em>current computer's</em> <strong>public</strong> ssh key (<em>never publish</em> your private key anywhere!), save and close the file.</p> <p>From that point, you should be able to SSH to your server via <code>ssh [username]@[domain name]</code> without needing to enter a password.</p> <p>These instructions use 'sudo' in front of commands because I assume you're using a non-root user. The instructions will still work fine even if you're logged in as 'root'.</p> <p>The rest of the tutorial can be run as your 'sudo-capable' non-root user.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-a-few-post-install-updates" href="#a-few-post-install-updates" name="a-few-post-install-updates" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>A few post-install updates</h2> <h3><a id="user-content-update-the-servers-hosts-file" href="#update-the-servers-hosts-file" name="update-the-servers-hosts-file" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Update the server's hosts file</h3> <p>This is required due to some quirks of the auto-detection of your domain name used by BigBlueButton - you'll need it later.</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/hosts</code></p> <p>and add (or make sure it already has) the following:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">127.0.1.1 <span class="br0">[</span>First part of domain<span class="br0">]</span> 127.0.0.1 localhost <span class="br0">[</span>IPv4<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="br0">[</span>IPv6<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span></pre></div></div> <p>For example - my test system has these details:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">127.0.1.1 bbbtest 127.0.0.1 localhost 143.110.228.88 bbbtest.milll.ws <span class="nu0">2604</span>:a880:<span class="nu0">4</span>:1d0::<span class="nu0">402</span>:b000 bbbtest.milll.ws</pre></div></div> <p>Do an initial post-install update to the latest software versions:</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get update &amp;&amp; sudo apt-get dist-upgrade</code></p> <p>and add a couple useful apps that, for example, track changes to our system configuration for future reference (etckeeper) and allow us to do network troubleshooting (net-tools):</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install -y etckeeper net-tools</code></p> <p>We also want to enable console logins in the event we have trouble using SSH:</p> <p><code>wget -qO- https://repos-droplet.digitalocean.com/install.sh | sudo bash</code></p> <h2><a id="user-content-firewall-configuration" href="#firewall-configuration" name="firewall-configuration" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Firewall Configuration</h2> <p>We need to configure firewall for admin access via SSH and access to internet for Docker containers</p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow OpenSSH</code></p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow in on docker0</code></p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow from 172.0.0.0/8 to any</code></p> <p>Then we need to adjust the default firewall policy:</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/default/ufw</code></p> <p>You'll find this:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Set the default forward policy to ACCEPT, DROP or REJECT. Please note that</span> <span class="co0"># if you change this you will most likely want to adjust your rules</span> <span class="re2">DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY</span>=<span class="st0">"DROP"</span></pre></div></div> <p>which you need to change to</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Set the default forward policy to ACCEPT, DROP or REJECT. Please note that</span> <span class="co0"># if you change this you will most likely want to adjust your rules</span> <span class="re2">DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY</span>=<span class="st0">"ACCEPT"</span></pre></div></div> <p>Next you need to edit this file</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf</code></p> <p>And change (near the top of the file):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Uncomment this to allow this host to route packets between interfaces</span> <span class="co0">#net/ipv4/ip_forward=1</span> <span class="co0">#net/ipv6/conf/default/forwarding=1</span> <span class="co0">#net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding=1</span></pre></div></div> <p>to</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Uncomment this to allow this host to route packets between interfaces</span> net<span class="sy0">/</span>ipv4<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re2">ip_forward</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span> net<span class="sy0">/</span>ipv6<span class="sy0">/</span>conf<span class="sy0">/</span>default<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re2">forwarding</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span> net<span class="sy0">/</span>ipv6<span class="sy0">/</span>conf<span class="sy0">/</span>all<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re2">forwarding</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span></pre></div></div> <p>(removing the "#" uncomments those lines)</p> <p>Next, you have to restart the server's networking stack to apply the changes you've made:</p> <p><code>sudo systemctl restart systemd-networkd</code></p> <p>Luckily, this is generally instantaneous, so your connection to your server shouldn't be interrupted.</p> <p>Then you either start or (if it's already running for some reason) restart the firewall</p> <p><code>sudo ufw enable</code></p> <p>or</p> <p><code>sudo service ufw restart</code></p> <p>(running both won't do any harm)</p> <p>And we also update the firewall configuration to tell it to automatically start at boot time.</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/ufw/ufw.conf</code></p> <p>Change <code>ENABLED=no</code> to <code>ENABLED=yes</code>.</p> <p>Next we need to set up some specialised rules for the "COTURN" functionality of the BigBlueButton system. <a href="https://coturn.github.io/">COTURN</a> is a FOSS application that provides both <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dLJmZOcWFc">TURN and STUN (video)</a> (<a href="https://blog.ivrpowers.com/post/technologies/what-is-stun-turn-server/">alternative non-video reference</a>) functionality which are core to the WebRTC protocol on which modern video conferencing applications are built, and are necessary for your users to connect their audio and video to a session, particularly if they're behind an institutional firewall.</p> <p><em>Note</em>: in some cases, <em>institutions will have implemented a rather over-the-top-paranoid 'default deny' for video conference hosts</em> which will block access to your BBB instance unless you can get them to add your site's domain name to their institutional whitelist. Sadly, there's no easy way around this.</p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow 7443/tcp</code></p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow 16384:32768/udp</code></p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow 3478/udp</code></p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow 5349/tcp</code></p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow from 10.7.7.0/24</code></p> <p>Ok, that's it for the firewall shenanigans.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-install-postfix-so-the-server-can-send-email" href="#install-postfix-so-the-server-can-send-email" name="install-postfix-so-the-server-can-send-email" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Install Postfix so the server can send email</h2> <p>It's generally a good idea to make sure any server you build can send email, and has a sensible default email address to send stuff to: stuff like administrative messages alerting you to failed tasks, or other system problems. We recommend that you designate an email address for whoever's responsible for this server. We've got a more <a href="/node/28">comprehsensive howto</a> for setting this up if you're wanting extra details.</p> <p>We achieve the outgoing mail functionality using the industrial strength Postfix SMTP server (it's widely used by ISPs for large-scale email services) along with a command line SMTP client that allows us to test our solution from the command line:</p> <p><code>sudo apt install postfix bsd-mailx</code></p> <p>During this installation, you'll be asked by the installer to make some decisions to do preliminary configuration of the Postfix installation. Select the default asnwers except as follows:</p> <ul><li>Select "Internet Site with Smarthost",</li> <li>fill in the [Domain] name you've chosen for your server,</li> <li>the domain name or IP address and port (in the form [SMTP server]:[port], examples might be smtp.oeru.org:465, or 10.11.143.22:465) of your "smarthost" who'll be doing the authenticating SMTP for you - note: <strong>our configuration works with port 465</strong>, and</li> <li>the email address to which you want to receive system-related messages, namely [Admin email].</li> </ul><p>Once that's installed, we need to set up our default email address for this server:</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/aliases</code></p> <p>This file will containerd</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># See man 5 aliases for format</span> postmaster: root</pre></div></div> <p>update it to include an email address to send stuff intended for the system admin (aka 'root'):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># See man 5 aliases for format</span> postmaster: root   root: <span class="br0">[</span>Admin email<span class="br0">]</span></pre></div></div> <p>after writing that, we have to convert that file into a form understood by Postix:</p> <p><code>sudo newaliases</code></p> <p>Next, we need to create a new file with the SMTP 'relay host' aka 'smart host' details:</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/postfix/relay_password</code></p> <p>In it you need to put the following:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="br0">[</span>SMTP Server<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="br0">[</span>SMTP username<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="br0">[</span>SMTP password<span class="br0">]</span></pre></div></div> <p>Here's an example:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">about.oerfoundation.org demosmtp<span class="sy0">@</span>milll.ws:7TLM6qGoqZXHfkDmkh6</pre></div></div> <p>Once you've set that up, we have to again prepare that file for use by Postfix:</p> <p><code>sudo postmap /etc/postfix/relay_password</code></p> <p>Finally, we need to update Postfix's main configuration to tell it to use our authenticating SMTP details:</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/postfix/main.cf</code></p> <p>You'll need to make main.cf look like this - specifically commenting out <code>smtp_tls_security_level=may</code> by adding a '#' at the start of the line, and then adding the details below <code># added to configure accessing the relay host via authenticating SMTP</code>. You should also take this opportunity to confirm that your [Domain], [SMTP server] and [SMTP port] are set correctly.</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">smtpd_banner = <span class="re1">$myhostname</span> ESMTP <span class="re1">$mail_name</span> <span class="br0">(</span>Ubuntu<span class="br0">)</span> biff = no   <span class="co0"># appending .domain is the MUA's job.</span> append_dot_mydomain = no   <span class="co0"># Uncomment the next line to generate "delayed mail" warnings</span> <span class="co0">#delay_warning_time = 4h</span>   readme_directory = no   <span class="co0"># See http://www.postfix.org/COMPATIBILITY_README.html -- default to 2 on</span> <span class="co0"># fresh installs.</span> compatibility_level = <span class="nu0">2</span>   <span class="co0"># TLS parameters</span> <span class="re2">smtpd_tls_cert_file</span>=<span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem <span class="re2">smtpd_tls_key_file</span>=<span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>private<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl-cert-snakeoil.key <span class="re2">smtpd_tls_security_level</span>=may   <span class="re2">smtp_tls_CApath</span>=<span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs <span class="co0">## Commented out for SmartHost configuration</span> <span class="co0">#smtp_tls_security_level=may</span> smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:<span class="co1">${data_directory}</span><span class="sy0">/</span>smtp_scache     smtpd_relay_restrictions = permit_mynetworks permit_sasl_authenticated defer_unauth_destination myhostname = <span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span> alias_maps = hash:<span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>aliases alias_database = hash:<span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>aliases myorigin = <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>mailname mydestination = <span class="re1">$myhostname</span>, bbbtest.milll.ws, localhost.milll.ws, localhost relayhost = <span class="br0">[</span>SMTP server<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="nu0">465</span> mynetworks = 127.0.0.0<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="nu0">8</span> <span class="br0">[</span>::ffff:127.0.0.0<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span><span class="nu0">104</span> <span class="br0">[</span>::<span class="nu0">1</span><span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span><span class="nu0">128</span> mailbox_size_limit = <span class="nu0">0</span> recipient_delimiter = + inet_interfaces = all inet_protocols = all   <span class="co0"># added to configure accessing the relay host via authenticating SMTP</span> smtp_sasl_auth_enable = <span class="kw2">yes</span> smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:<span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>postfix<span class="sy0">/</span>relay_password smtp_sasl_security_options = smtp_tls_security_level = encrypt   <span class="co0"># add this if you're using Ubuntu 20.04, and comment out (with a "#") the</span> <span class="co0"># earlier line smtp_tls_security_level = may to save errors in 'postfix check'</span> <span class="co0"># and uncomment this line (by removing the #)</span> smtp_tls_wrappermode = <span class="kw2">yes</span></pre></div></div> <p>Here's an example of what the final code could look like (don't use these exact values as they won't work for you):</p> <p>First, I commented this out:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co4">#</span><span class="re2">smtp_tls_security_level</span>=may</pre></div></div> <p>Made sure this was my [Domain]</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">myhostname = bbbtest.milll.ws</pre></div></div> <p>Made sure this had my [SMTP server] and [SMTP port] details:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">relayhost = about.oerfoundation.org:<span class="nu0">465</span></pre></div></div> <p>And I added this at the end:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># added to configure accessing the relay host via authenticating SMTP</span> smtp_sasl_auth_enable = <span class="kw2">yes</span> smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:<span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>postfix<span class="sy0">/</span>relay_password smtp_sasl_security_options = smtp_tls_security_level = encrypt   <span class="co0"># add this if you're using Ubuntu 20.04, and comment out (with a "#") the</span> <span class="co0"># earlier line smtp_tls_security_level = may to save errors in 'postfix check'</span> <span class="co0"># and uncomment this line (by removing the #)</span> smtp_tls_wrappermode = <span class="kw2">yes</span></pre></div></div> <p>After this, the Postfix configuration is done. We can check that we haven't got any typos via</p> <p><code>sudo postfix check</code></p> <p>If not, we can apply our configuration changes:</p> <p><code>sudo postfix reload</code></p> <p>and we can confirm it all worked correctly by checking the log file for Postfix:</p> <p><code>sudo less +G /var/log/mail.log</code></p> <p>Note: you might see a warning like this: <code>postfix/postfix-script: warning: symlink leaves directory: /etc/postfix/./makedefs.out</code> - it's spurious and you don't need to worry about it.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-email-test" href="#email-test" name="email-test" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Email test</h3> <p>Next we can test our outgoing SMTP by sending a test message via the command line - <em>use a test email that you can check!</em>:</p> <p><code>mail [Test email]</code></p> <p>for example:</p> <p><code>mail demo@oerfoundation.org</code></p> <p>After you hit Enter, you'll be shown</p> <p><code>Subject:</code> {Enter an email subject, e.g. "Test email from [Domain]"}</p> <p>After that, hit Enter, and you'll be shown a blank line. On that line:</p> <p>{Enter your email text, e.g. "This is just a test."}</p> <p>Then, to finish your email, type <em>CTRL-D</em> which will show you another line</p> <p><code>CC:</code> {Enter any CC email addresses, e.g. <a href="mailto:mybackupemail@anotherprovider.tld">mybackupemail@anotherprovider.tld</a> }</p> <p>After you hit Enter, your email should be sent if all your configuration options are accepted by your remote host (the SMTP server at the address [SMTP server] with all the other details you entered).</p> <p>You can check if it worked by looking at the Postfix log again:</p> <p><code>sudo less +G /var/log/mail.log</code></p> <p>If it sent the email, you'll see something like (but with different IP addresses, serial numbers, and addresses) - the key bit is the <code>status=sent</code> bit and the <code>250</code> code from the SMTP server:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">08FBD2B501C: <span class="re2">to</span>=<span class="sy0">&lt;</span>demo<span class="sy0">@</span>oerfoundation.org<span class="sy0">&gt;</span>, <span class="re2">relay</span>=dovecot<span class="br0">[</span>172.22.1.250<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="nu0">24</span>, <span class="re2">delay</span>=<span class="nu0">1.3</span>, <span class="re2">delays</span>=<span class="nu0">1.3</span><span class="sy0">/</span><span class="nu0">0.02</span><span class="sy0">/</span><span class="nu0">0</span><span class="sy0">/</span><span class="nu0">0.04</span>, <span class="re2">dsn</span>=2.0.0, <span class="re2">status</span>=sent <span class="br0">(</span><span class="nu0">250</span> 2.0.0 <span class="sy0">&lt;</span>demo<span class="sy0">@</span>oerfoundation.org<span class="sy0">&gt;</span> MMokCa2TpWEffAAAPgmdMA Saved<span class="br0">)</span></pre></div></div> <p>You can also check for receipt of email and verify receipt (note, if you don't get it quickily, check your email spam folder).</p> <h2><a id="user-content-install-nginx-webserver-and-lets-encrypt-tools" href="#install-nginx-webserver-and-lets-encrypt-tools" name="install-nginx-webserver-and-lets-encrypt-tools" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Install Nginx webserver and Let's Encrypt tools</h2> <p><code>sudo apt install -y nginx-full ca-certificates letsencrypt ssl-cert</code></p> <p>You need to tell your firewall to open the ports that the Nginx webserver will use:</p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow "Nginx Full"</code></p> <p>And then we need to create a special configuration for Let's Encrypt and then an identify verification directory:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir /etc/nginx/includes</code></p> <p><code>sudo mkdir /var/www/letsencrypt</code></p> <p>To create the specific configuration, we create this file:</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/nginx/includes/letsencrypt.conf</code></p> <p>And fill it with this information:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Rule for legitimate ACME Challenge requests</span> location ^~ <span class="sy0">/</span>.well-known<span class="sy0">/</span>acme-challenge<span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> default_type <span class="st0">"text/plain"</span>; <span class="co0"># this can be any directory, but this name keeps it clear</span> root <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt; <span class="br0">}</span>   <span class="co0"># Hide /acme-challenge subdirectory and return 404 on all requests.</span> <span class="co0"># It is somewhat more secure than letting Nginx return 403.</span> <span class="co0"># Ending slash is important!</span> location = <span class="sy0">/</span>.well-known<span class="sy0">/</span>acme-challenge<span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="kw3">return</span> <span class="nu0">404</span>; <span class="br0">}</span></pre></div></div> <p>We'll reference this file in our Nginx configuration file for the reverse proxy functionality.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-set-up-coturn-certificates" href="#set-up-coturn-certificates" name="set-up-coturn-certificates" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Set up COTURN certificates</h2> <p>In preparation for creating our Let's Encrypt SSL certificate for our [Domain], we're going to set up a 'hook' which is triggered when our SSL certificate is created, and it copies our current certificate to a place where the COTURN server can find it.</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/letsencrypt/renewal-hooks/deploy/coturn.sh</code></p> <p>Copy and past the following into your file (<strong>replacing [Domain] with your domain name</strong>):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0">#!/bin/bash</span>   <span class="re2">DOMAIN</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">DEST</span>=<span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>coturn-ssl   <span class="co0">#if [[ 1 == 1 ]]; then</span> <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="br0">[</span><span class="br0">[</span> <span class="re1">$RENEWED_DOMAINS</span> == <span class="sy0">*</span><span class="st0">"<span class="es2">$DOMAIN</span>"</span><span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="br0">]</span><span class="br0">]</span>; <span class="kw1">then</span> <span class="kw2">cp</span> <span class="re5">-L</span> <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt<span class="sy0">/</span>live<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="co1">${DOMAIN}</span><span class="sy0">/</span>fullchain.pem <span class="re1">$DEST</span> <span class="kw2">cp</span> <span class="re5">-L</span> <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt<span class="sy0">/</span>live<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="co1">${DOMAIN}</span><span class="sy0">/</span>privkey.pem <span class="re1">$DEST</span> <span class="kw3">echo</span> <span class="st0">"updated <span class="es2">$DOMAIN</span> certificates in <span class="es2">$DEST</span>"</span> <span class="kw1">fi</span></pre></div></div> <p>Next, make that script executable:</p> <p><code>sudo chmod a+x /etc/letsencrypt/renewal-hooks/deploy/coturn.sh</code></p> <p>so that it is run automatically anytime the relevant certificate is created or renewed.</p> <p>After that, we have to create a place for the COTURN-specific certificates to go:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir /etc/coturn-ssl</code></p> <h2><a id="user-content-set-up-nginx-reverse-proxy-configuration" href="#set-up-nginx-reverse-proxy-configuration" name="set-up-nginx-reverse-proxy-configuration" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Set up Nginx Reverse Proxy Configuration</h2> <p>Next we have to set up our Nginx webserver on our virtual server, which will be the Docker container host for our BigBlueButton system. The reverse proxy configuration will allow the virtual server to receive web requests from BBB users and pass them securely through to the right Docker container.</p> <p>Create a suitable configuration file - at the OERF we use the convention of calling our configuration</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/nginx/sites-available/$SITE</code></p> <p>In this file, you'll past in the following, replacing [Domain] as appropriate - now might be a good idea to try out search and replace in your text editor!</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">server <span class="br0">{</span> listen <span class="nu0">80</span>; <span class="co0"># if your host doens't support IPv6, comment out the following line</span> listen <span class="br0">[</span>::<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="nu0">80</span>; server_name <span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span>;   access_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span>.access.log; error_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span>.error.log;   include includes<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt.conf;   <span class="co0"># redirect all HTTP traffic to HTTPS.</span> location <span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="kw3">return</span> <span class="nu0">302</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span><span class="re1">$server_name</span><span class="re1">$request_uri</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="br0">}</span>   server <span class="br0">{</span> listen <span class="nu0">443</span> ssl http2 default_server; <span class="co0"># if your host doens't support IPv6, comment out the following line</span> listen <span class="br0">[</span>::<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="nu0">443</span> ssl http2 default_server; server_name <span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span>;   <span class="co0"># We comment these out *after* we have successfully geneated our Let's Encrypt certificate for [Domain].</span> ssl_certificate <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem; ssl_certificate_key <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>private<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl-cert-snakeoil.key; <span class="co0"># we start with these commented out until after we can generate our Let's Encrypt certificate for [Domain]!</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/[Domain]/fullchain.pem;</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/[Domain]/privkey.pem;</span> ssl_dhparam <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs<span class="sy0">/</span>dhparam.pem;   access_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span>.access.log; error_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span>.error.log;   location <span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> proxy_http_version <span class="nu0">1.1</span>; <span class="co0"># for BBB 2.4, the port used is 48087. For earlier versions of BBB, it's 8080</span> proxy_pass http:<span class="sy0">//</span>127.0.0.1:<span class="nu0">48087</span>; proxy_set_header Host <span class="re1">$host</span>; proxy_set_header X-Real-IP <span class="re1">$remote_addr</span>; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For <span class="re1">$proxy_add_x_forwarded_for</span>; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto <span class="re1">$scheme</span>; proxy_set_header Upgrade <span class="re1">$http_upgrade</span>; <span class="co0">#proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;</span> proxy_set_header Connection <span class="st0">"Upgrade"</span>; proxy_cache_bypass <span class="re1">$http_upgrade</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="br0">}</span></pre></div></div> <p><em><strong>Update 2021-12-30</strong></em> With the release of BBB 2.4 a few weeks ago, the Docker configuration now has one 'breaking' change: the port has been changed to 48087! So, if you are installing an older version of BBB, the previous default was port 8080. If you get a 502 error after setting up your containers, check to make sure you haven't been bitten by this little detail!</p> <p>Right - back to the process...</p> <p>After creating it, we have to 'enable' the configuration:</p> <p><code>sudo ln -sf /etc/nginx/sites-available/$SITE /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/</code></p> <p>It's also not a bad idea to disable the Nginx default configuration, as it can sometimes interfere with things:</p> <p><code>sudo rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default</code></p> <h3><a id="user-content-extra-security-with-dhparampem" href="#extra-security-with-dhparampem" name="extra-security-with-dhparampem" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Extra security with dhparam.pem</h3> <p>We're going to create a 'dhparam' certificate for your configuration. These take a long time to generate - between 10-30 minutes, depending not on the speed of your computer, but on the rate at which it creates 'random events' that allow it to create a suitablely complex random prime number.</p> <p><code>sudo openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem 2048</code></p> <p>If your time isn't limited, you can increase the size of your dhparam from 2048 to 4096 - it'll take quite a lot longer to create.</p> <p>Ok - now that we've created our dhparam.pem, referenced in our Nginx configuration for [Domain], we should have everything in place. We can now test Nginx's configuration:</p> <p><code>sudo nginx -t</code></p> <p>If you don't get any errors or warnings, you can activate the new configuration:</p> <p><code>sudo service nginx reload</code></p> <p>You server should now successfully respond to your [Domain], but it'll redirect to HTTPS using the default (self-signed) certificates that are valid as far as Nginx is concerned, but your browser won't let you access the page due to those inappropriate certificates. You can test it by putting <code>http://[Domain]</code> into your browser and seeing if it redirects you to <code>https://[Domain]</code> and a 'bad certificate` (or similar) page.</p> <p>To fix that, we can now generate a Let's Encrypt certificate which <em>will</em> be valid.</p> <p><code>sudo letsencrypt certonly --webroot -w /var/www/letsencrypt -d ${SITE}</code></p> <p>Since this is your first time running the letsencrypt script, you'll be asked for a contact email (so the Let's Encrypt system can warn you if your certificates are going to be expiring soon!) - use your [Admin email] for this. You can also opt in to allowing them to get anonymous statistics from your site.</p> <p>Once you've done that, the Let's Encrypt system will verify that you (the person requesting the certificate) also controls the server that's requesting it (using the details specified in the <code>/etc/nginx/includes/letsencrypt.conf</code> file, along with data that the letsencrypt script writes into a special file in the <code>/var/www/letsencrypt</code> directory) and, all going well, you'll see a "Congratulations!" message telling you that you have new certificates for your [Domain].</p> <p>Now is a good time to check if your renew-hook worked properly - there should now be two files in <code>/etc/coturn-ssl</code>, namely <code>fullchain.pem</code> and <code>privkey.pem</code>. If that's not the case, something might have gone wrong.</p> <p>Then you can re-edit your Nginx confguration file:</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT /etc/nginx/sites-available/$SITE</code></p> <p>and comment out the default certificates and uncomment the [Domain]-specific certificates, like this (we'll assume you've already got your [Domain] substituted!):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">  ...   <span class="co0"># We comment these out *after* we have successfully geneated our Let's Encrypt certificate for [Domain].</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem;</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key; </span> <span class="co0"># we start with these commented out until after we can generate our Let's Encrypt certificate for [Domain]!</span> ssl_certificate <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt<span class="sy0">/</span>live<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>fullchain.pem; ssl_certificate_key <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt<span class="sy0">/</span>live<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>privkey.pem; ssl_dhparam <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs<span class="sy0">/</span>dhparam.pem;   ...  </pre></div></div> <p>Once you've got that going, you again check to make sure your Nginx config is valid:</p> <p><code>sudo nginx -t</code></p> <p>and apply your configruation changes:</p> <p><code>sudo service nginx reload</code></p> <p>If you now go to <code>http://[Domain]</code> in your browser, you should be redirected to <code>https://[Domain]</code> and you shouldn't get any <em>certificate</em> errors, although you might get a "502" error because the service that reverse proxy configuration is trying to send you to doesn't yet exist! That's what we're expecting.</p> <p>One more thing - we need to make sure that the <code>coturn.sh</code> renewal hook script has run. We can check to make sure that there are two files, <code>fullchain.pem</code> and <code>privkey.pem</code> in the <code>/etc/coturn-ssl</code> directory. If we start the Docker containers before these files exist, the Docker daemon creates them <em>as directories</em> by default which can lead to all sorts of trickiness. Run</p> <p><code>sudo ls -l /etc/coturn-ssl/</code></p> <p>and make sure you get a result like this:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="re5">-rw-r--r--</span> <span class="nu0">1</span> root root <span class="nu0">5588</span> Dec <span class="nu0">13</span> 08:<span class="nu0">42</span> fullchain.pem <span class="re5">-rw-------</span> <span class="nu0">1</span> root root <span class="nu0">1704</span> Dec <span class="nu0">13</span> 08:<span class="nu0">42</span> privkey.pem</pre></div></div> <h2><a id="user-content-install-docker" href="#install-docker" name="install-docker" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Install Docker</h2> <p>Now we have to set up the Docker container support by first registering a new package source...</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https curl gnupg lsb-release</code></p> <p><code>sudo curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo gpg --dearmor -o /usr/share/keyrings/docker-archive-keyring.gpg</code></p> <p><code>sudo echo "deb [arch=$(dpkg --print-architecture) signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/docker-archive-keyring.gpg] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu $(lsb_release -cs) stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list &gt; /dev/null</code></p> <p>updating our list of available packages to include the Docker-related packages...</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get update</code></p> <p>and then install them:</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install -y docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io</code></p> <p>Which installs a bunch of dependencies as well.</p> <p>To make sure that our non-root user can talk to the Docker server, we need to jump through a couple more hoops:</p> <p><code>sudo addgroup docker</code></p> <p><code>sudo adduser dave docker</code></p> <p>After doing this, the easiest thing is to log out and log back in again to make sure my user can access the new permissions. To confirm that my user has docker group privileges, I can run</p> <p><code>id</code></p> <p>which should give a result like</p> <p><code>uid=1000(dave) gid=1000(dave) groups=1000(dave),4(adm),27(sudo),1001(docker)</code></p> <p>with the latter being the confirmation.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-install-docker-compose" href="#install-docker-compose" name="install-docker-compose" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Install Docker-compose</h2> <p>Now we're almost to the BigBlueButton part - we just need to install the Docker Compose framework:</p> <p><code>sudo apt install python3-pip</code></p> <p><code>sudo pip install -U pip</code></p> <p><code>sudo pip install -U docker-compose</code></p> <p>Once you've done that, you should be able to run <code>docker-compose</code> at your command prompt and it should give you the docker-compose help page. If so, great work! Almost there.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-git-clone-bbb-docker-repository" href="#git-clone-bbb-docker-repository" name="git-clone-bbb-docker-repository" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Git-Clone BBB Docker repository</h2> <p>Now it's time to install the set of Docker containers that make up the BigBlueButton stack of coordinated services.</p> <p>We make a place for the docker configuration and data to live:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir -p /home/docker/</code></p> <p>go into it</p> <p><code>cd /home/docker</code></p> <p>and then we use the magic of 'git' (if you don't know it, this is one of the single most powerful tools programmers use - everyone would benefit from knowing how 'version control' works - git is by far the most widely used version control aka 'source code control' system in the world. It's open source.) to 'clone' the BigBlueButton developers' Docker definitions code:</p> <p><code>sudo git clone -b main --recurse-submodules https://github.com/bigbluebutton/docker.git bbb-docker</code></p> <p>That command puts all the code into a directory called <code>bbb-docker</code> so let's go there:</p> <p><code>cd bbb-docker</code></p> <p>and in there, we run this command to gram a second layer of code that is referenced by the first layer we already downloaded in the previous step:</p> <p><code>sudo git submodule update --init</code></p> <p>Finally, we run this handy script provided by the BBB developers to set up a working Docker Compose configuration:</p> <p><code>sudo ./scripts/setup</code></p> <p>This will script will ask you some questions about your system. These are the questions <em>and</em> the answers we'll use - note, where I've written [IPv4] and [IPv6] below, you should see the actual IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for your server:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">Should greenlight be included? <span class="br0">(</span>y<span class="sy0">/</span>n<span class="br0">)</span>: y Should an automatic HTTPS Proxy be included? <span class="br0">(</span>y<span class="sy0">/</span>n<span class="br0">)</span>: n Should a coturn be included? <span class="br0">(</span>y<span class="sy0">/</span>n<span class="br0">)</span>: y Coturn needs TLS to <span class="kw1">function</span> properly. Since automatic HTTPS Proxy is disabled, you must provide a relative or absolute path to your certificates. Please enter path to cert.pem: <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>coturn-ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>fullchain.pem Please enter path to key.pem: <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>coturn-ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>privkey.pem Should a Prometheus exporter be included? <span class="br0">(</span>y<span class="sy0">/</span>n<span class="br0">)</span>: y Please enter the domain name: bbbtest.milll.ws Should the recording feature be included? IMPORTANT: this is currently a big privacy issues, because it will record everything <span class="kw2">which</span> happens <span class="kw1">in</span> the conference, even when the button suggests, that it does not. <span class="kw2">make</span> sure that you always get people<span class="st_h">'s consent, before they join a room! https://github.com/bigbluebutton/bigbluebutton/issues/9202 Choice (y/n): y Is [IPv4] your external IPv4 address? (y/n): y Is [IPv6] your external IPv6 address? (y/n): y</span></pre></div></div> <p>Once you finish answering these questions, the script creates a file called <code>.env</code> (the leading '.' means it's a 'hidden' file that won't show up in normal directory listings - you have to know it's there, as it holds important system values and shouldn't be deleted.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-configure-your-bbb" href="#configure-your-bbb" name="configure-your-bbb" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Configure your BBB</h2> <p>But now, we're going to tweak it, because it holds all the important customised values we need to configure our BigBlueButton service.</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT .env</code></p> <p>When you're editing the file, scroll down through it and adjust the values you find as follows.</p> <p>Uncomment this one</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="re2">ALLOW_MAIL_NOTIFICATIONS</span>=<span class="kw2">true</span></pre></div></div> <p>Set the following</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="re2">SMTP_SERVER</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>SMTP server<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">SMTP_PORT</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>SMTP port<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">SMTP_DOMAIN</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>Domain<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">SMTP_USERNAME</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>SMTP username<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">SMTP_PASSWORD</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>SMTP password<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">SMTP_AUTH</span>=plain <span class="re2">SMTP_STARTTLS_AUTO</span>=<span class="kw2">true</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="re2">SMTP_SENDER</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>Outgoing email<span class="br0">]</span></pre></div></div> <p>and finally set</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="re2">DEFAULT_REGISTRATION</span>=invite</pre></div></div> <p>This last one makes it possible for you to invite external people to make use of your BigBlueButton instance - they can create a log in and create their own rooms over which they'll have some control. These can be people in your organisation or community for whom you want your BBB to be available as a resource.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-fix-minor-configuration-error-that-blocks-jodconverter" href="#fix-minor-configuration-error-that-blocks-jodconverter" name="fix-minor-configuration-error-that-blocks-jodconverter" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Fix minor configuration error that blocks JODConverter</h3> <p>One of the containers used in the BBB stack is called <a href="https://github.com/bigbluebutton/docker/tree/develop/mod/jodconverter">JODConverter</a> which, in standard Free and Open Source Software tradition, makes use of an <a href="https://github.com/EugenMayer/docker-image-jodconverter">'upstream' development</a> by another developer, <a href="https://github.com/EugenMayer">EugenMayer</a>, which in turn makes use of an <a href="https://hub.docker.com/r/bellsoft/liberica-openjdk-debian">upstream development</a>...</p> <p>The issue is that a recent update (in early December 2021) has broken the process of launching this container. This is a big problem because the JODConverter provides the services of converting uploaded presentations and downloaded documents (like BBB's Public Chat or Shared Notes) in various useful file formats.</p> <p>Turns out the fix is easy. While still in <code>bbb-docker</code>, Just run</p> <p><code>sudo $EDIT mod/jodconverter/Dockerfile</code></p> <p>and add the following line to the very bottom of the file:</p> <p><code>CMD ["--spring.config.additional-location=optional:/etc/app/"]</code></p> <p>Save it, and you're done. I have <a href="https://github.com/bigbluebutton/docker/issues/178">submitted an issue</a> with the fix I've found to the <code>bigbluebutton/docker</code> project.</p> <p>Once that configuration is done, it's finally time to...</p> <h2><a id="user-content-build-your-bbb" href="#build-your-bbb" name="build-your-bbb" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Build your BBB</h2> <p>The first time it's run, this command will trigger the building of a set of no less than 22 separate Docker containers, each running its own crucial service as part of the BigBlueButton stack.</p> <p><code>sudo docker-compose up -d</code></p> <p><em>Note: this process can take a LONG time, like an hour or more</em> depending on your server's internet connection speed.</p> <p>If you want to see how long it takes the first time, run this instead:</p> <p><code>sudo time docker-compose up -d</code></p> <p>which will give you a readout of the time the command takes to complete.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-visit-your-new-bbb" href="#visit-your-new-bbb" name="visit-your-new-bbb" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Visit your new BBB</h2> <p>Once you next see the command prompt ($ or #), it means that your BBB system is starting up. You can see the status of the containers by running</p> <p><code>sudo docker-compose ps</code></p> <p>which should give you something that looks like this, once everything is running (it might take a few minutes!):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"> Name Command State Ports <span class="re5">-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</span> bbb-docker_apps-akka_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>bin<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="kw2">sh</span> <span class="re5">-c</span> dockerize - ... Up bbb-docker_bbb-web_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up <span class="br0">(</span>healthy<span class="br0">)</span> bbb-docker_coturn_1 docker-entrypoint.sh <span class="re5">--ext</span> ... Up bbb-docker_etherpad_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up <span class="nu0">9001</span><span class="sy0">/</span>tcp bbb-docker_freeswitch_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>bin<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="kw2">sh</span> <span class="re5">-c</span> <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up bbb-docker_fsesl-akka_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>bin<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="kw2">sh</span> <span class="re5">-c</span> dockerize - ... Up bbb-docker_greenlight_1 bin<span class="sy0">/</span>start Up 10.7.7.1:<span class="nu0">5000</span>-<span class="sy0">&gt;</span><span class="nu0">80</span><span class="sy0">/</span>tcp bbb-docker_html5-backend-<span class="nu0">1</span>_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up bbb-docker_html5-backend-<span class="nu0">2</span>_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up bbb-docker_html5-frontend-<span class="nu0">1</span>_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up bbb-docker_html5-frontend-<span class="nu0">2</span>_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up bbb-docker_jodconverter_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>docker-entrypoint.sh <span class="re5">--sp</span> ... Up bbb-docker_kurento_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up <span class="br0">(</span>healthy<span class="br0">)</span> bbb-docker_mongodb_1 docker-entrypoint.sh mongo ... Up <span class="br0">(</span>healthy<span class="br0">)</span> <span class="nu0">27017</span><span class="sy0">/</span>tcp bbb-docker_nginx_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>docker-entrypoint.sh ngin ... Up bbb-docker_periodic_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up bbb-docker_postgres_1 docker-entrypoint.sh postgres Up <span class="br0">(</span>healthy<span class="br0">)</span> <span class="nu0">5432</span><span class="sy0">/</span>tcp bbb-docker_prometheus-exporter_1 python server.py Up <span class="nu0">9688</span><span class="sy0">/</span>tcp bbb-docker_recordings_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>bin<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="kw2">sh</span> <span class="re5">-c</span> <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up bbb-docker_redis_1 docker-entrypoint.sh redis ... Up <span class="br0">(</span>healthy<span class="br0">)</span> <span class="nu0">6379</span><span class="sy0">/</span>tcp bbb-docker_webhooks_1 <span class="sy0">/</span>bin<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="kw2">sh</span> <span class="re5">-c</span> <span class="sy0">/</span>entrypoint.sh Up bbb-docker_webrtc-sfu_1 .<span class="sy0">/</span>docker-entrypoint.sh npm ... Up 127.0.0.1:<span class="nu0">3008</span>-<span class="sy0">&gt;</span><span class="nu0">3008</span><span class="sy0">/</span>tcp</pre></div></div> <p>At that point, you can visit <code>https://[Domain]</code> and instead of a 502 error, you should see the BigBlueButton 'Greenlight' front page.</p> <p>Now the final step...</p> <h2><a id="user-content-create-an-admin-user" href="#create-an-admin-user" name="create-an-admin-user" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Create an admin user:</h2> <p>To create an admin user, you run this:</p> <p><code>sudo docker-compose exec greenlight bundle exec rake admin:create</code></p> <p>It will give you a login email address and a randomly generated password. Use these to log in. In the profile (top right Admin menu dropdown), you can alter the admin user's email to a real email (perhaps [Admin email]?), and change the password if you like.</p> <p>Then you can go back to the Admin menu and select "Organisation" which should put you on the Manage Users page. You then invite yourself to join as a user by sending yourself an email (which, if your SMTP settings are correct, will work). If you don't receive it in a minute or two, check your spam folder.</p> <p>Either log out of Greenlight before clicking the link in the email or open the link (by copying and pasting it) in a different browser where you're not logged in to this Greenlight instance, and create a user account for yourself.</p> <p>Then log back into Greenlight as the Admin user (if you've previously logged out) and refresh the "Manage Users" page. You should find your newly created user. Select 'Edit' from the vertical 3 dotted menu. On the "Update your Account Info" page, set the User Role for your user to 'Admin" and click the "Update" button. You should now be able to log out as Admin, and back in as your own user, but with administrative privileges.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-run-your-first-conference" href="#run-your-first-conference" name="run-your-first-conference" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Run your first conference</h2> <p>Now it's time to try running a video conference. Click on the "Home" link (top right menu) and you should see that you have a default room called "Home Room" with a URL specified in the form [Domain]/b/[first 3 letters of your name]-[3 random hex digits]-[3 more random hex digits]. For me, it might look something like this: https://[Domain]/b/dav-a5b-73z</p> <p>Click "Start" to initiate a conference in that Home Room.</p> <p>In the conference room, you should select 'Microphone' so you can test speaking and listening, and also test your video camera (assming you have access to both on the computing device you're using to access BBB - note, a modern cellphone normally offers all of these.</p> <p><em>We always encourage people participating in video conferences (regardless of the technology) to employ headphones to separate the audio from the conference form their input. It greatly improves the audio quality for all involved!</em>.</p> <p>If you select 'Microphone', there will be a brief delay whil your browser negotiates with the COTURN server in your BBB stack to link your data and audio channels. Once it's done that, it will give you an "echo test" window (see included screen shots). You should speak into your microphone when you see that screen and check whether you can hear yourself. This will confirm that your audio settings are right (or not) and will help the BBB system adjust its echo cancellation algorithms.</p> <p>You can then also clidk the 'camera' icon (bottom middle of the page) to activate your webcam if you have one (or choose one if you have multiple cameras) as well as the video quality.</p> <p>You can also try to 'Start recording' if you want to test your ability to record a session. Note that there is a delay after the end of a session in which you've recorded before the recording is displayed on the 'room' page in Greenlight. It might take minutes or even hourse to generate depending on the power of your server and the length of the session.</p> <p>To see other administrative functionality including moderation and breakout rooms, click on the "gear" icon next to the "Users" heading in the left hand column. You can also experiment with the "Public Chat" and the "Shared Notes". Both can be saved at any time (via the top right 3 dot menu in that section) and will be included in any recordings you make.</p> <p><em>Note</em> the contents of Public Chat and Shared Notes will be wiped at the end of a session unless you explicitly save them or record the session (at least briefly at the end).</p> <p>You can provide that "room address" to anyone and they can join your room (via an modern browser) when you have a session running. Alternatively, you can click on the 3 dotted menu associated with your room below the 'Search for room" form, and change the default properties of your room, including configuring it to let anyone who knows the room's address start a session. You can also create additional rooms (as an Admin user, you can set the limits on many of these properties via Organisation in the top right menu under your user name.</p> <p>Have fun with your new, world class, cost-effective, large-scale BigBlueButton video conferencing application!</p> <h2><a id="user-content-next-steps" href="#next-steps" name="next-steps" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Next Steps</h2> <p>In a future tutorial, we'll provide information on how to troubleshoot BBB issues, how to upgrade it as new versions are made available by developers, and how to ensure that your recordings, user database, and configuration are backed up incrementally, encrypted, in remote storage.</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <h2 class="comment-field__title">Blog comments</h2> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-826" about="/comment/826" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous has-title clearfix"> <div class="comment__container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="comment__title"> <a href="/comment/826#comment-826" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en">It says in the nginx-config…</a> <span class="comment__new marker marker--success hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1641281859"></span> </h3> <div class="comment__meta"> <div class="comment__submitted"> <span class="comment__author"><span rel="schema:author"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">LPup (not verified)</span></span> </span> <span class="comment__pubdate">Tue 04/01/2022 - 20:32 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2022-01-04T07:32:09+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </span> </div> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field-comment--comment-body field-name-comment-body field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div property="schema:text" class="field__item"><p>It says in the nginx-config to change the port for the proxy and not forget to change it in the .env file. Where do I need to put what into the .env file for using a different port than 8080?</p> </div> </div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=826&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="ab5iIZGMF89MSnCPgbrcuI7yHqfoKEyjDb9VtJ299fg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </div> </article> <div class="indented"><article data-comment-user-id="1" id="comment-827" about="/comment/827" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-node-author has-title clearfix"> <div class="comment__container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="comment__title"> <a href="/comment/827#comment-827" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en">Hmm - thanks for pointing…</a> <span class="comment__new marker marker--success hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1641282307"></span> </h3> <div class="comment__meta"> <div class="comment__submitted"> <span class="comment__author"><span rel="schema:author"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> </span> <span class="comment__pubdate">Tue 04/01/2022 - 20:44 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2022-01-04T07:44:02+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </span> </div> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <p class="comment__parent visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/826#comment-826" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en">It says in the nginx-config…</a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">LPup (not verified)</span></p> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field-comment--comment-body field-name-comment-body field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div property="schema:text" class="field__item"><p>Hmm - thanks for pointing that out. Yes, I think I made an error with that instruction (I've updated the Nginx config). If you implement BBB today via this set of instructions, you'll be installing BBB 2.4 - port 8080 was used in 2.3 and earlier versions. For 2.4, use port 48087. To be honest, I'm not sure of the right way to alter it if you have to due to other services running on the same system. Writing it manually in the docker-compose.yml file will be overwritten the next time you do an update... It might be necessary to change the port specified in the relevant container's Dockerfile under <code>mods</code>...</p></div> </div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=827&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="IQwvVUQ-NlVwsrO5mMYIbQJJDVotfViSFCA7rOx4_Aw"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=46&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="bVuNCPDsukUifzhtwLxvL6UanvQCaG2zyJeoiuzQckE"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Wed, 10 Nov 2021 02:42:41 +0000 dave 46 at http://tech.oeru.org Installing MariaDB on Ubuntu 20.04 http://tech.oeru.org/installing-mariadb-ubuntu-2004 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Installing MariaDB on Ubuntu 20.04 </span> <div class="field field-node--field-blog-tags field-name-field-blog-tags field-type-entity-reference field-label-above"> <h3 class="field__label">Blog tags</h3> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item field__item--mysql"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/83" hreflang="en">mysql</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--mariadb"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/48" hreflang="en">mariadb</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu 30/09/2021 - 11:56</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>At the OER Foundation, we have <a href="/node/39">the convention</a> of using Docker to deploy most components of the <a href="/node/34">web services we offer</a>. One notable exception to that is the way we deploy our most widely used database. Rather than deploying a separate MySQL/MariaDB container for every service on a given host, we instead deploy a single instance running on the host. We do this for a couple reasons:</p> <ol><li>MySQL/MariaDB are mature and are generally backwards compatible, and (importantly),</li> <li>it's easier to back up a single instance using <code>automysqlbackup</code> or our <a href="https://git.nzoss.nz/lightweight/dbbackup">hourly backup script</a> for some hosts.</li> </ol><p>So why am I constantly talking about 'MySQL/MariaDB'? <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MariaDB">MariaDB</a> is effectively a drop-in alternative to <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MySQL">MySQL</a> and we prefer it because it's not controlled by Oracle and has a more active developer community. On Ubuntu, MariaDB pretends to be MySQL for compatibility purposes, so don't be weirded out by the interchangeable names below.</p> <p>You'll replace the similarly [named] variables in the configuration files and command lines below. These are the values you need to find or create.</p> <ul><li>MariaDB/MySQL database details <ul><li> <strong>[database root password]</strong> - the administrative user (root) password for this server - use a <a href="/node/43">random password</a> </li> <li> <strong>[your database password]</strong> - if you, optionally, want to set up an admin user for yourself on this server. Paired with <strong>[your username]</strong> on the server.</li> </ul></li> </ul><p>Install the latest versions of the server and client like this.</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install mariadb-server mariadb-client</code></p> <p>You need to set a root (admin) user password - you might want to create a <code>/root/.my.cnf</code> file containing the following (replacing [mysql root password]) to let you access MariaDB without a password from the commandline:</p> <p><code>sudo nano /root/.my.cnf </code></p> <p>and put the following info into it</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="br0">[</span>client<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">user</span>=root <span class="re2">password</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>database root password<span class="br0">]</span></pre></div></div> <p>You should now be able to type <code>mysql</code> at the command prompt (note, the name mysql is used for backward compatibility with many implementations where MariaDB is being used to replace MySQL).</p> <p><strong>Optional MySQL non-root user</strong></p> <p>If you're happy to use your root user to access MySQL, e.g. <code>sudo mysql</code> (which uses 'sudo' to access it via the root user), then you can safely ignore the rest of this section.</p> <p>If you're accessing the server via a non-root user (which is a good idea, and is the reason we use <code>sudo</code> in this howto), you might want to create a similar <code>~/.my.cnf</code> file in your directory , with your username in place of <code>root</code>, and a <em>different password</em>. That will allow you to work with the MariaDB client without needing to enter the root credentials each time.</p> <p>To make it work, you'll need to run the following as the MySQL admin user - this should be the default on this new install - remember to replace your [tokens]!). This creates <em>two</em> users with the same credentials that will allow you to log in either from the same server (i.e. 'localhost') or from any of your Docker containers (often useful for debugging!), namely the wildcard '%'. <strong>Remember</strong>: if you change the user's details, you'll have to do it for both the localhost and '%' users.</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">CREATE USER <span class="st0">"[your username]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"localhost"</span> IDENTIFIED BY <span class="st0">"[your database password]"</span>; CREATE USER <span class="st0">"[your username]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"%"</span> IDENTIFIED BY <span class="st0">"[your database password]"</span>; GRANT ALL ON <span class="sy0">*</span>.<span class="sy0">*</span> to <span class="st0">"[your username]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"localhost"</span> WITH GRANT OPTION; GRANT ALL ON <span class="sy0">*</span>.<span class="sy0">*</span> to <span class="st0">"[your username]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"%"</span> WITH GRANT OPTION; FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</pre></div></div> <p>Don't be alarmed if MySQL tells you "0 rows affected" when you create a user - unless you see a specific 'error', it's still creating them.</p> <p><strong>End optional MySQL non-root user section</strong></p> <p>Tweak the configuration so that it's listening on the right internal network device.</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf</code></p> <p>and copy the bind-address line and adjust so it looks like this - we want MariaDB to be listening on all interfaces, not just localhost (<code>127.0.0.1</code>)...</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on</span> <span class="co0"># localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure.</span> <span class="co0">#bind-address = 127.0.0.1</span> bind-address = 0.0.0.0</pre></div></div> <p>Then restart MariaDB:</p> <p><code>sudo service mysql restart</code></p> <p>It should now be listening on MySQL/MariaDB's default port <code>3306</code> on all interfaces, i.e. <code>0.0.0.0</code>. For safety's sake, external access to the MariaDB server is blocked by your UFW firewall.</p> <p>Now you should be able to log into the MariaDB client on the host (if you've created a <code>.my.cnf</code> file in your home directory as describe above, you won't need to enter your username and password):</p> <p><code>mysql -u root -p</code></p> <p>You should now be able to create new databases as in our other tutorials... And in case you're stuck, to exit the SQL client, just type <code>\q</code> and ENTER.</p> <h4><a id="user-content-regular-automatic-database-backups" href="#regular-automatic-database-backups" name="regular-automatic-database-backups" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Regular automatic database backups</h4> <p>Finally, it's a good idea (but optional - if you're in a hurry, you can do this later) to make sure that your server is maintaining backups of your database - in this case, we'll use the <code>automysqlbackup</code> script to automatically maintain a set of dated daily database backups. It's easy to install, and the database backups will be in <code>/var/lib/automysqlbackup</code> in dated folders and files. <strong>If you haven't set up Postfix in the previous step, just beware you will be asked to set it up when installing automysqlbackup</strong>.</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install automysqlbackup</code></p> <p>That's all there is to it. It should run automatically every night and store a set of historical SQL snapshots that may well save your bacon sometime down the track!</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=44&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="n5lqti7xqRsZSZoiUepP0EFyiX3UevLR_3QNKVa7GeU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Wed, 29 Sep 2021 22:56:01 +0000 dave 44 at http://tech.oeru.org Creating strong random passwords http://tech.oeru.org/creating-strong-random-passwords <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Creating strong random passwords</span> <div class="field field-node--field-blog-tags field-name-field-blog-tags field-type-entity-reference field-label-above"> <h3 class="field__label">Blog tags</h3> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item field__item--ubuntu-linux"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">ubuntu linux</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--random-passwords"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/81" hreflang="en">random passwords</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--free--open-source"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/6" hreflang="en">free &amp; open source</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--password-keeper"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/61" hreflang="en">password keeper</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon 13/09/2021 - 12:26</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Throughout our Free and Open Source Software tutorials, we need to specify passwords for things. Creating random passwords is surprisingly hard, but we've found a method that's very serviceable and makes it easy to do as we all should: ensure every separate identity or service has a <a href="https://xkcd.com/936/"><strong>strong</strong></a> password that is unique to that identity and application (i.e. never use the same password in more than one place). We also <em>strongly encourage</em> you all to track your passwords using a <a href="/node/25">password manager</a>!</p> <p>To generate decent random passwords, we use <code>pwgen</code>, which you can easily use on your server (log in - via SSH or using your hosting provider's console to your server - as root or, even better as a non-root user with <code>sudo</code> privileges) by typing at the terminal command prompt:</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install pwgen</code></p> <p>I don't tend to use special characters in passwords stored in configuration files because they can lead to syntax parsing issues when put into configuration files. Instead, I just make them fairly long. To create a random password, I use this</p> <p><code>pwgen -s 19 1</code></p> <p>which returns a single 19 character-long password with a mixture of letters (lower and uppercase) and digits. A few examples: <code>HxF0GAyS1jw63Dy3T5K avZ5qj4xt0tTS0ONyLo 43IJZbZxLrKJSegZhyR</code>.</p> <p><em>Note: your passwords are likely to appear, in clear text, in your terminal window after you've created them, which is a temporary security threat.</em> Once you've got them entered where they need to be, I recommend running <code>CTRL-L</code> in your terminal window which will clear the visible text from past commands and give you a default command prompt (your terminal session will still remember past commands if you click <code>up arrow</code>).</p> <p>You can create all the passwords you need to follow one of our tutorials up front and then copy and paste them somewhere useful, like into a text editor on your desktop, from which you can easily copy and paste them and track where they belong. The ones you use to log into remote services yourself should be stored in a password manager (as recommended above!).</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=43&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="BUNjQwNtY7O4jXHa9zY4bExoCTes3MS2LjSioD2BKtI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Mon, 13 Sep 2021 00:26:04 +0000 dave 43 at http://tech.oeru.org Setting up OERu-style virtual Ubuntu 20.04 or 22.04 server for Docker Compose http://tech.oeru.org/setting-oeru-style-virtual-ubuntu-2004-or-2204-server-docker-compose <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Setting up OERu-style virtual Ubuntu 20.04 or 22.04 server for Docker Compose</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon 13/09/2021 - 11:11</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>Here at the OER Foundation, where we build and maintain the <a href="/node/34">computer services used by the OERu</a>, its learners, and its educators around the globe, we've come up with a tech process that seems to work very nicely, with minimal cost and maintenance overhead. It involves setting up hosting infrastructure to adhere to <a href="/node/39">some conventions</a> that have emerged over time (and are subject to change if we identify better ones).</p> <p>This post gives you a step-by-step process to create a host that adheres to those conventions, making it a perfect jumping off point for hosting any of the Free and Open Source Software-based services we use.</p> <ul class="table-of-contents"><li> <p><a href="#step-one---a-suitable-host">Step one - a suitable host</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#get-your-domain-lined-up">Get your Domain lined up</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#log-into-your-server">Log into your server</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#sort-out-your-details">Sort out your details</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#random-passwords">Random passwords</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#step-two---prepare-the-host">Step two - prepare the host</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#mariadbmysql">MariaDB/MySQL</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#set-up-docker-and-docker-compose">Set up Docker and Docker-Compose</a></p> </li> </ul></li> </ul><h2><a id="user-content-step-one---a-suitable-host" href="#step-one---a-suitable-host" name="step-one---a-suitable-host" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Step one - a suitable host</h2> <p>The first step is to get yourself an entry-level virtual server or compute instance (also sometimes referred to as a "VPS" or Virtual Private Server, or even a "VM" a Virtual Machine).</p> <p>I generally use <a href="https://digitalocean.com">DigitalOcean</a> (I have no affiliation with the company), but there are many other commodity hosting services (check out <a href="https://vultr.com">Vultr</a> or <a href="https://linode.com">Linode</a>, for example) around the world which offer comparably (or better) spec'd servers for USD5.00/month, or USD60.00/year. For that you get a Gigabyte (GB) of RAM, a processor, and 40GB of SSD (Static Storage Device = faster) storage.</p> <p>A server (a "Droplet" in Digital Ocean parlance) with a GB of RAM and 20+ GB of disk space will be sufficient for most of our individual services. If you expect it to have heavy traffic, or you might want to add more services, you might want to invest in a higher-spec server up-front (because, among other things, it'll offer you more disk space). Most of our servers are USD40/month instances (USD480/year) which buys 8GB of RAM, 4 virtual processors, and 160GB of disk space.</p> <p>If you're wanting to host something, like Mastodon or NextCloud, with substantial potential for chewing up disk space with user-uploaded content, you might want to start off with an additional storage option which is easier to expand if required, and has the added benefit of vastly reducing the hassles associated with recovering from a 'full disk' by moving that storage blowout away from your system disk.</p> <p>You'll create an account for yourself on your chosen hosting provider (it's a good idea to use Two Factor Authentication, aka 2FA, on your hosting account so that no one can log in as you and, say, delete your server unexpectedly - you'll find instructions on how to set up 2FA on your hosting provider's site) and create an Ubuntu 20.04 or 22.04 (or the most recent 'Long Term Support' (LTS) version) - 24.04 is likely to come out in April 2024) in the 'zone' nearest to you (or your primary audience, if that's different).</p> <p>'''Update 2022-05''': you may also be able to eliminate some of the intermediate steps below by choosing to create your droplet from a pre-built ''snapshot'' of an OERF-Docker Compose-equipped droplet rather than a normal Ubuntu 20.04 or 22.04 image. That will only be available by prior arrangement, though.</p> <p>If you don't already have an SSH key on your computer, I encourage you to <a href="https://support.atlassian.com/bitbucket-cloud/docs/set-up-an-ssh-key/">create one</a> and specify the <strong>public key</strong> in the process of creating your server - specifying the 'public key' of your SSH identity during the server creation process that should allow you to log in without needing a password!</p> <p>You'll need to note the server's <strong>IPv4</strong> address (it'll be a series of 4 numbers, 0-254, separated by full stops, e.g. 103.99.72.244), and you should also be aware that your server will have a newer <strong>IPv6</strong> address, which will be a set of 8 four <em>hex character</em> values (each hex character can have one of 16 values: 0-9,A-F) separated by colons, e.g. 2604:A880:0002:00D0:0000:0000:20DE:9001. With one or the other of those IPs, you should be able to <a href="https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-use-ssh-to-connect-to-a-remote-server-in-ubuntu">log into your new server via SSH</a>. If you're on a UNIX command line (e.g. a Linux or MacOS desktop), do this in a terminal (on Windows, I understand people use a tool called Putty for SSH, in which case follow the app's instructions.):</p> <p><code>ssh [your server IPv4 or IPv6]</code></p> <p>followed by the ENTER key (that'll be true for any line of commands I provide).</p> <p>In some cases, depending on your hosting provider, you'll have a password to enter, or if you've specified your pre-existing public SSH key, you shouldn't need to enter a password at all, you should be logged in. To check what user you care, you can type</p> <p><code>whoami</code></p> <p>If it returns <code>root</code>, you're the root or super-admin of the server. If not, you're a normal user (some hosting providers have a convention of giving you a default user of "ubuntu" user perhaps "debian").</p> <p>Now that you're logged in, it's worth doing an upgrade of your server's Ubuntu system! Do that as follows:</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get update &amp;&amp; sudo apt-get dist-upgrade</code></p> <p>Usually the user, even if it's not the root user, will have the ability to use the <code>sudo</code> command modifier - that means "do this action as the root (aka the 'Super User', thus 'su' for short) user" - you may be asked to enter your password as a security precaution the first time you run a command prefaced by <code>sudo</code>. Enter it, and it should run the command. Plus, the system shouldn't bother you for it again unless you leave your terminal unused for a while and come back to it.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-get-your-domain-lined-up" href="#get-your-domain-lined-up" name="get-your-domain-lined-up" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Get your Domain lined up</h3> <p>You will want to have a domain to point at your server, so you don't have to remember the IP number. There're are thousands of domain "registrars" in the world who'll help you do that... You just need to "register" a name, and you pay yearly fee (usually between USD10-30 depending on the country and the "TLD" (Top Level Domain. There're national ones like .nz, .au, .uk, .tv, .sa, .za, etc., or international domains (mostly associated with the US) like .com, .org, .net, and a myriad of others. Countries decide on how much their domains wholesale for and registrars add a margin for the registration service).</p> <p>Here in NZ, I use the services of Metaname (they're local to me in Christchurch, and I know them personally and trust their technical capabilities). If you're not sure who to use, ask your friends. Someone's bound to have recommendations (either positive or negative, in which case you'll know who to avoid).</p> <p>Once you have selected and registered your domain, you can 'manage your Zone' to set up (usually through a web interface provided by the registrar) an <strong>A Record</strong> which associates your website's name to the <strong>IPv4</strong> address of your server. So you should just be able to enter your server's IPv4 address, the domain name (or sub-domain) you want to use for the web service you want to set up.</p> <p>Nowadays, <em>if your Domain Name host offers it (some don't, meaning you might be better off with a different one),</em> it's also important to define an <strong>IPv6</strong> record, which is called an <strong>AAAA Record</strong>... you put in your IPv6 address instead of your IPv4 one.</p> <p>You might be asked to set a "Time-to-live" (which has to do with the length of time Domain Name Servers are asked to "cache" the association that the A Record specifies) in which case you can put in 3600 seconds or an hour depending on the time units your interface requests... but in most cases that'll be set to a default of an hour automatically.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-log-into-your-server" href="#log-into-your-server" name="log-into-your-server" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Log into your server</h3> <p>You should be able to test that your A and AAAA Records have been set correctly by logging into your server via SSH using your domain name rather than the IPv4 or IPv6 address you used previously. It should (after you accept the SSH warning that the server's name has a new name) work the same way your original SSH login did. On Linux, you'd SSH via a terminal and enter <code>ssh root@[domain name]</code>. I think you can do similar on MacOS and on Windows, I believe people typically use software called <a href="https://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/latest.html">Putty</a>...</p> <p>This will log you into your server as the 'root' user. It's not considered good practice to access your server as root (it's too easy to completely screw it up). Best practice is to create a separate 'non-root' user who has 'sudo' privileges and the ability to log in via SSH. If you are <em>currently logged in as 'root'</em>, you can create a normal user for yourself via (replace [username] with your chosen username):</p> <p><code>U=[username]</code><br /><code>adduser $U</code><br /><code>adduser $U ssh</code><br /><code>adduser $U admin</code><br /><code>adduser $U sudo</code></p> <p>You'll also want to a set a password for user [username]:</p> <p><code>passwd $U</code></p> <p>then become that user temporarily (note, the root user can 'become' another user without needing to enter a password) and create an SSH key and, in the process, the <code>.ssh</code> directory (directories starting with a '.' are normally 'hidden') for the file into which to put your public SSH key:</p> <p><code>su $U</code><br /><code>ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048</code><br /><code>nano ~/.ssh/authorized_keys</code></p> <p>and in that file, copy and paste (without spaces on either end) your <em>current computer's</em> <strong>public</strong> ssh key (<em>never publish</em> your private key anywhere!), save and close the file.</p> <p>From that point, you should be able to SSH to your server via <code>ssh [username]@[domain name]</code> without needing to enter a password.</p> <p>These instructions use 'sudo' in front of commands because I assume you're using a non-root user. The instructions will still work fine even if you're logged in as 'root'.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-sort-out-your-details" href="#sort-out-your-details" name="sort-out-your-details" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Sort out your details</h3> <p>You'll replace the similarly [named] variables in the configuration files and command lines below. These are the values you need to find or create.</p> <ul><li> <strong>[domain name]</strong> - the fully qualified domain name or subdomain by which you want your WPMS to be accessed. You must have full domain management ability on this domain. Example: <code>course.oeru.org</code> </li> <li>Authenticating SMTP details - this is required so your web service can send emails to users - crucial things like email address validation and password recovery emails... <ul><li> <strong>[smtp host]</strong> - the domain name or IPv4 or IPv6 address of an SMTP server</li> <li> <strong>[smtp reply-to-email address]</strong> - a monitored email to which people can send email related to this WordPress site, e.g. webmaster@[domain name]</li> <li> <strong>[smtp user]</strong> - the username (often an email address) used to authenticate against your SMTP server, provided by your email provider.</li> <li> <strong>[smtp password]</strong> - the accompanying password, provided by your email provider.</li> </ul></li> <li>Docker.com login details (you'll need a username and password).</li> <li>if you're setting up a service that requires it: MariaDB/MySQL database details <ul><li> <strong>[database root password]</strong> - the administrative user (root) password for this server - use a random password - see below</li> <li> <strong>[your database password]</strong> - if you, optionally, want to set up an admin user for yourself on this server. Paired with <strong>[your username]</strong> on the server.</li> </ul></li> </ul><p><strong>Note</strong>: not all values in all files surrounded by [] need to be replaced! If they're not included in the list above, leave them as you find them!</p> <h3><a id="user-content-random-passwords" href="#random-passwords" name="random-passwords" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Random passwords</h3> <p>To generate decent random passwords, we encourage you to follow our <a href="/node/43">how to create strong random</a> passwords tutorial.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-step-two---prepare-the-host" href="#step-two---prepare-the-host" name="step-two---prepare-the-host" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Step two - prepare the host</h2> <p>Preparing the host involves ensuring your firewall, UFW, is configured properly, installing the Nginx webserver to act as your host's reverse proxy, and installing MariaDB (MySQL compatible but better, for a variety of reasons including that it's not controlled by Oracle) and configuring it properly. Then we can create the MariaDB database specifically for the web service you're wanting to install. We also suggest you install Postfix so your server can send out email to you, and finally, we'll ensure that your server knows how to launch Docker containers and manage them with Docker Compose.</p> <p>Before we do anything else, let's make sure your Ubuntu package repository is up-to-date.</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get update</code></p> <p>If you pause this build process for more than a few hours, it pays to run it again before you continue on.</p> <p>(<strong>If you have installed your droplet from an OERF-supplied snapshot, you're probably done now! You can skip the rest of this tutorial, because it's already been done - all except for the MariaDB/MySQL section. You might also need to change some of the 'details', although chances are you can run with those provided.</strong>)</p> <h4><a id="user-content-firewall-with-ufw" href="#firewall-with-ufw" name="firewall-with-ufw" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Firewall with UFW</h4> <p>No computer system is ever full secure - there're always exploits waiting to be found, so security is a process of maintaining vigilance. Part of that is reducing exposure - minimising your "attack surface". Use a firewall - <code>ufw</code> is installed on Ubuntu by default and is easy to set up and maintain. Make sure you've got exceptions for SSH (without them, you could lock yourself out of your machine! Doh!).</p> <p>Run the following commands to allow your Docker containers to talk to other services on your host.</p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow OpenSSH</code><br /><code>sudo ufw allow in on docker0</code><br /><code>sudo ufw allow from 172.0.0.0/8 to any</code></p> <p>Specifically for Docker's benefit, you need to tweak the default Forwarding rule (I use <code>vim</code> as my editor. An alternative, also installed by default on Ubuntu, <code>nano</code>, is probably easier to use for simple edits like this, so I'll use <code>nano</code> here):</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/default/ufw</code></p> <p>and copy the line <code>DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY="DROP"</code> tweak it to look like this (commenting out the default, but leaving it there for future reference!):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0">#DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY="DROP"</span> <span class="re2">DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY</span>=<span class="st0">"ACCEPT"</span></pre></div></div> <p>and then save and exit the file (CTRL-X and then 'Y').</p> <p>You also have to edit <code>/etc/ufw/sysctl.conf</code> and remove the "#" at the start of the following lines, so they look like this:</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf</code></p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Uncomment this to allow this host to route packets between interfaces</span> net<span class="sy0">/</span>ipv4<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re2">ip_forward</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span> net<span class="sy0">/</span>ipv6<span class="sy0">/</span>conf<span class="sy0">/</span>default<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re2">forwarding</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span> net<span class="sy0">/</span>ipv6<span class="sy0">/</span>conf<span class="sy0">/</span>all<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re2">forwarding</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span></pre></div></div> <p>and finally restart the network stack and ufw on your server</p> <p><code>sudo systemctl restart systemd-networkd</code><br /><code>sudo service ufw restart</code></p> <p>We also have to make sure UFW starts by default on a server reboot. To do this, run</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/ufw/ufw.conf</code></p> <p>And make sure you set</p> <p><code>ENABLED=yes</code></p> <p>Near the top! Save the file.</p> <h4><a id="user-content-installing-the-nginx-webserverreverse-proxy" href="#installing-the-nginx-webserverreverse-proxy" name="installing-the-nginx-webserverreverse-proxy" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Installing the Nginx webserver/reverse proxy</h4> <p>In the configuration I'm describing here, you'll need a webserver running on the server - it'll be acting as a reverse proxy for the Docker-based Nginx instance described below. I prefer the efficiency of Nginx and clarity of Nginx configurations over those of Apache and other open source web servers. Here's how you install it.</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install nginx-full</code></p> <p>To allow <code>nginx</code> to be visible via ports 80 and 443, run</p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow 'Nginx Full'</code></p> <p>To check that all worked, you can put <code>http://[domain name]</code> into your browser's address bar, and you should see a default "NGINX" page...</p> <p>Note: make sure your hosting service is not blocking these ports at some outer layer (depending on who's providing that hosting service you may have to set up port forwarding).</p> <h4><a id="user-content-sending-emails" href="#sending-emails" name="sending-emails" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Sending emails</h4> <p>Because a server like this one is set up to perform lots of rather complex jobs to perform, it's vital that your server has the ability to send you emails to alert you of problems, like failed updates or backups. We encourage you to follow our instructions on <a href="/node/28">how to configure your server to use the <code>Postfix</code> SMTP server to send out email, using your Authenticating SMTP details</a>.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-mariadbmysql" href="#mariadbmysql" name="mariadbmysql" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>MariaDB/MySQL</h3> <p>If your web service requires MySQL or the drop-in replacement we prefer, MariaDB, you can <a href="/node/44">follow our instructions for installing MariaDB</a> on this host.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-set-up-docker-and-docker-compose" href="#set-up-docker-and-docker-compose" name="set-up-docker-and-docker-compose" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Set up Docker and Docker-Compose</h3> <p>First, you need to set up <a href="https://docs.docker.com/install/linux/docker-ce/ubuntu/">Docker support</a> on your server - use the 'repository method' for Ubuntu 20.04 (or 22.04 if available) and choose the 'x86_64 / amd64' tab!</p> <p>Also, if you're using a non-root user, follow the complete instructions including <em><a href="https://docs.docker.com/engine/install/linux-postinstall/">setting up Docker for your non-root user</a></em>.</p> <p>The way I implement this set of containers is to use <a href="https://docs.docker.com/compose/">Docker Compose</a>) which depends on the Python script interpreter (version 3+). I suggest using the latest installation instructions provided by the Docker community. Of the options provided, I use the 'alternative instructions', employing <a href="https://docs.docker.com/compose/install/#install-using-pip">the 'pip' approach</a>. This is what I usually do (to summarise the pip instructions):</p> <p>The firrst step is to Install Ubuntu's Python3 pip which is a bit outdated...</p> <p><code>sudo apt install python3-pip</code></p> <p>use the Ubuntu instance, called pip3 to install the latest Python 3 pip</p> <p><code>sudo pip install -U pip</code></p> <p>and (finally) install the docker-compose script:</p> <p><code>sudo pip install -U docker-compose</code></p> <h4><a id="user-content-set-up-our-conventional-directories" href="#set-up-our-conventional-directories" name="set-up-our-conventional-directories" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Set up our conventional directories</h4> <p>To set up your server, I recommend setting up a place for your Docker containers as per our <a href="/node/39">Docker-related conventions</a>:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir -p /home/data/[domain name]</code><br /><code>sudo mkdir -p /home/docker/[domain name]</code></p> <p>And once you've done that, you're done preparing your server, and you can start the fun part - setting up the service(s) you're after, like a <a href="/node/38">WordPress Multisite</a> or a <a href="/node/29">NextCloud + OnlyOffice</a> instance or your own <a href="/node/25">BitWarden</a> or many others!</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=42&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="--i8RS7SZizQmRCjdAWf4qf60DUnu8asEAvJpZwb-_M"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Sun, 12 Sep 2021 23:11:44 +0000 dave 42 at http://tech.oeru.org OERF FOSS Tech Hosting Conventions http://tech.oeru.org/oerf-foss-tech-hosting-conventions <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">OERF FOSS Tech Hosting Conventions</span> <div class="field field-node--field-blog-tags field-name-field-blog-tags field-type-entity-reference field-label-above"> <h3 class="field__label">Blog tags</h3> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item field__item--overview"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/76" hreflang="en">overview</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--docker"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/16" hreflang="en">docker</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--docker-compose"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/49" hreflang="en">docker-compose</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--mariadb"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/48" hreflang="en">mariadb</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--nginx"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/30" hreflang="en">nginx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--ubuntu-linux"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">ubuntu linux</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--ssh"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/77" hreflang="en">ssh</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--restic"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/78" hreflang="en">restic</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--lets-encrypt"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/17" hreflang="en">let&#039;s encrypt</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--git"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/79" hreflang="en">git</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--gitlab"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/80" hreflang="en">gitlab</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--foss"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/10" hreflang="en">foss</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon 30/08/2021 - 11:44</span> <div class="field field-node--field-image field-name-field-image field-type-image field-label-hidden has-multiple"> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-1"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-08/SSH_Session_Screenshot_about.oerfoundation.org-20210830.png?itok=yu7PbTtx" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A snapshot of an SSH session on about.oerfoundation.org, located in San Francisco, CA, USA, and its performance stats as viewed from Christchurch, New Zealand. &quot;}" role="button" title="A snapshot of an SSH session on about.oerfoundation.org, located in San Francisco, CA, USA, and its performance stats as viewed from Christchurch, New Zealand. " data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A snapshot of an SSH session on about.oerfoundation.org, located in San Francisco, CA, USA, and its performance stats as viewed from Christchurch, New Zealand. &quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-08/SSH_Session_Screenshot_about.oerfoundation.org-20210830.png?itok=6cfu9o9O" width="220" height="105" alt="A snapshot of an SSH session on about.oerfoundation.org, located in San Francisco, CA, USA, and its performance stats as viewed from Christchurch, New Zealand. " loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-2"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-08/Editing_tech.oeru_.org_on_about.oerfoundation.org-20210830.png?itok=-EfYK9sU" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Editing the docker-compose.yml file for this site using the Vim editor on about.oerfoundation.org via SSH.&quot;}" role="button" title="Editing the docker-compose.yml file for this site using the Vim editor on about.oerfoundation.org via SSH." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;Editing the docker-compose.yml file for this site using the Vim editor on about.oerfoundation.org via SSH.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-08/Editing_tech.oeru_.org_on_about.oerfoundation.org-20210830.png?itok=npeVOBsh" width="220" height="176" alt="Editing the docker-compose.yml file for this site using the Vim editor on about.oerfoundation.org via SSH." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-3"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-08/Screenshot%202021-08-30%20at%2016-21-09%20OERu.png?itok=TwAuGCsB" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A snapshot of OERu FOSS software projects in our Gitlab instance. All are visible to anyone and we invite contributions.&quot;}" role="button" title="A snapshot of OERu FOSS software projects in our Gitlab instance. All are visible to anyone and we invite contributions." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;A snapshot of OERu FOSS software projects in our Gitlab instance. All are visible to anyone and we invite contributions.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-08/Screenshot%202021-08-30%20at%2016-21-09%20OERu.png?itok=3FmBKhhs" width="202" height="220" alt="A snapshot of OERu FOSS software projects in our Gitlab instance. All are visible to anyone and we invite contributions." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>At the <a href="https://oerfoundation.org">OER Foundation</a> we host <a href="/node/34">an array</a> of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) services. To keep things manageable, we have established a set of conventions to which we adhere, and I'm describing them here in case it's helpful to others who can either learn from, or improve on, our experience.</p> <p>To begin with, we use <a href="https://ubuntu.com">Ubuntu Linux</a> for all of our hosts. We deploy the current Long Term Support (LTS) version of Ubuntu (at the time of this writing, it's 20.04) on commodity Linux hosting services, like Digital Ocean and Hetzner.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-host-access" href="#host-access" name="host-access" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Host access</h2> <p>We access all our hosts on the command line, via secure, end-to-end encrypted connections, using <a href="https://openssh.com">OpenSSH</a>. We don't use a server management tool (neither an open source one, like ISPConfig or Webmin, nor proprietary ones like Plex or CPanel). They would just slow us down. We prefer the efficiency and power afforded us by SSH. At any given time, I'm logged into a half a dozen remote systems, issuing updates, deploying code, diagnosing issues, checking resource usage, shoring up disk space, or tweaking Docker configurations.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-software-on-the-host" href="#software-on-the-host" name="software-on-the-host" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Software on the host</h2> <p>On the host, we run the following:</p> <ol><li>We run <a href="https://etckeeper.branchable.com/">etckeeper</a> on each server to track changes in configuration. In general, we have these changes pushed to a central server to provide a reference in the event of a disaster (e.g. the server is compromised and needs to be 'nuked from orbit'...).</li> <li>The <a href="https://nginx.org">Nginx</a> web server - it's our reverse proxy of choice. All of our <a href="/node/11">Let's Encrypt</a> certificates terminate at the host server, greatly simplifying the deployment of the individual services running on it.</li> <li>The <a href="https://postfix.org">Postfix</a> SMTP server - it's our outgoing mailserver of choice, and we <a href="/node/28">set it up as a smarthost</a>, so that the server can send status and administrative messages to us via our <a href="https://mailcow.email">MailCow</a> email infrastructure using authenticating secure SMTP.</li> <li>The <a href="https://docs.docker.com/get-started/overview/">Docker</a> containerisation framework using the <a href="https://docs.docker.com/compose/">Docker Compose</a> system to coordinate collections of containers that work together to provide specific services. Docker allows us to run a bunch of effectively independent Linux systems, each with potentially different sets of complex software dependencies, efficiently and reliably on a single host.</li> <li>For each service, with an individual domain or subdomain name, we get a <a href="https://letsencrypt.org">Let's Encrypt</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_Layer_Security#SSL_1.0,_2.0,_and_3.0">SSL certificate</a> using the letsencrypt scripting toolchain. It is free of cost, and <a href="/node/11">easy to build into our workflow</a>, so it's a 'no-brainer' as far as we're concerned, ensuring all of our sites protect the data of their users with full encrypted links!</li> <li>For applications we deploy that depend on the MySQL database, we run a single instance of the fully MySQL-compatible <a href="https://mariadb.org/">MariaDB</a> on our host, and the Docker containers connect to it via the internal network. We do it this way to easy the process of backing up the various MariaDB databases, which would be much more fiddly if we were running a bunch of individual MariaDB or MySQL instances in Docker containers. We use MariaDB because we prefer its development model, design decisions, and the fact that it's not being run by the Oracle Corporation, which owns the MySQL project.</li> <li>We use <a href="https://restic.net/">Restic</a> to perform remote encrypted incremental file backups for the filesystems on each server. We send them to a development server we have which has oodles of disk space (<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Btrfs">BTRFS</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_RAID_levels#RAID_1">RAID1</a> if you're curious) for safekeeping.</li> </ol><p>When each new Ubuntu LTS release comes out, we tend to create an install image for our commodity hosting provider (most recently, Digital Ocean), which has all these things pre-installed.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-docker-deployments" href="#docker-deployments" name="docker-deployments" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Docker deployments</h2> <p>For the various services we deploy using Docker - more specifically, using the very handy Docker Compose scripting toolchain, we have a bunch of conventional practices.</p> <ol><li>We put all our Docker Composer recipes in a common directory: <code>/home/docker</code> - each service goes in a directory using the domain name of that service. For example, this Tech blog, tech.oeru.org is in the directory <code>/home/docker/tech.oeru.org</code> on our server about.oerfoundation.org. Each service directory has a <code>docker-compose.yml</code> file which defines the collection of Docker containers making up each service. It also specifies the local directors in which data we want to make persistent, even surviving the removal of relevant Docker containers. In the case of this site, the containers include an Nginx webserver container which submits requests delivered to it by our hosts's Nginx reverse proxy to a PHP scripting engine container which, in turn, consults the Drupal 8 source code making up the site, and the MariaDB on the host which stores the data. There is also a PHP container which automatically runs the behind-the-scenes automated 'cron' tasks that every Drupal site requires.</li> <li>We store that per-service persistent data in a similarly named directory under <code>/home/data</code>, so this site's data is stored in <code>/home/data/tech.oeru.org</code>. That data includes, in the case of this site, an Nginx directory, with a generic Drupal website configuration, and a directory to contain all the Drupal 8 core source code and that for theme, module, and library dependencies. In a few cases, where we're using tools with specialised Docker deployment practices, like Mailcow, BigBlueButton, and Discourse, the persistent data for the site is stored under the <code>/home/docker</code> directory to avoid unnecessarily complicating our use of those tools. So our conventions are just that - not hard and fast, if there's a good reason to compromise them.</li> </ol><h2><a id="user-content-keeping-track" href="#keeping-track" name="keeping-track" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Keeping track</h2> <p>For all of our service configurations, and, in particular our Docker deployments, we use <a href="https://git-scm.com">Git</a> to provide source code versioning and management. We also use it to deploy code that we have developed ourselves. Where possible, we use (and contribute back to!) upstream git repositories supplied by the communities surrounding many of the FOSS services we offer. We see that as doing our part to be good, contributing FOSS community members.</p> <p>All of our git repositories are held on our own, self-hosted <a href="https://about.gitlab.com/community/">Gitlab</a> instance: <a href="https://git.oeru.org/explore/projects">https://git.oeru.org</a> - anyone is welcome to peruse the repositories, and we invite anyone interested in contributing to <a href="/contact">request a an account</a> (give us an idea of what you're interested in doing and how you'd like to participate!).</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=39&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="mc3_yQFNlAQZsoRapw9jke6XUslZiwMrWV52Y56Nyas"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Sun, 29 Aug 2021 23:44:43 +0000 dave 39 at http://tech.oeru.org Building a Course Site with WordPress on Ubuntu 20.04 using Docker Compose http://tech.oeru.org/building-course-site-wordpress-ubuntu-2004-using-docker-compose <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Building a Course Site with WordPress on Ubuntu 20.04 using Docker Compose</span> <div class="field field-node--field-blog-tags field-name-field-blog-tags field-type-entity-reference field-label-above"> <h3 class="field__label">Blog tags</h3> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item field__item--wordpress"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/35" hreflang="en">wordpress</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--docker"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/16" hreflang="en">docker</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--docker-compose"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/49" hreflang="en">docker-compose</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--ubuntu-linux"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/12" hreflang="en">ubuntu linux</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--_004"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/75" hreflang="en">20.04</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--multisite"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/36" hreflang="en">multisite</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--redis"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/21" hreflang="en">redis</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--nginx"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/30" hreflang="en">nginx</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--php"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/40" hreflang="en">php</a></span> </div> <div class="field__item field__item--lets-encrypt"> <span class="field__item-wrapper"><a href="/taxonomy/term/17" hreflang="en">let&#039;s encrypt</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/user/1" lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">dave</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue 24/08/2021 - 16:00</span> <div class="field field-node--field-image field-name-field-image field-type-image field-label-hidden has-multiple"> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-1"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-09/Screenshot%202021-09-03%20at%2015-48-16%20https%20course%20oeru%20org_register-enrol_anon.png?itok=yna1rg6z" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;An anonymous view of an OERu course with Register Enrol link shown (top right).&quot;}" role="button" title="An anonymous view of an OERu course with Register Enrol link shown (top right)." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;An anonymous view of an OERu course with Register Enrol link shown (top right).&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-09/Screenshot%202021-09-03%20at%2015-48-16%20https%20course%20oeru%20org_register-enrol_anon.png?itok=CY0E87Dh" width="220" height="156" alt="An anonymous view of an OERu course with Register Enrol link shown (top right)." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-2"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-09/Screenshot%202021-09-03%20at%2015-49-57%20https%20course%20oeru%20org_register-enrol_loggedin.png?itok=DyccmnI7" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;An OERu course with a logged in and registered user, see Register Enrol link (top right)&quot;}" role="button" title="An OERu course with a logged in and registered user, see Register Enrol link (top right)" data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;An OERu course with a logged in and registered user, see Register Enrol link (top right)&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-09/Screenshot%202021-09-03%20at%2015-49-57%20https%20course%20oeru%20org_register-enrol_loggedin.png?itok=31IN-ffG" width="182" height="220" alt="An OERu course with a logged in and registered user, see Register Enrol link (top right)" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> <figure class="field-type-image__figure image-count-3"> <div class="field-type-image__item"> <a href="http://tech.oeru.org/sites/default/files/styles/max_1300x1300/public/2021-09/Screenshot%202021-09-06%20at%2014-54-40%20https%20course%20oeru%20org_lida101_wenotesfeed.png?itok=54vVTHcL" aria-controls="colorbox" aria-label="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;An OERu course WEnotes feed aggregation page. Note the sources from which feed messages are drawn - our WEnotes aggregator checks many sources including personal blogs that learners have registered.&quot;}" role="button" title="An OERu course WEnotes feed aggregation page. Note the sources from which feed messages are drawn - our WEnotes aggregator checks many sources including personal blogs that learners have registered." data-colorbox-gallery="gallery-field_image-GnjYzG6vmqA" class="colorbox" data-cbox-img-attrs="{&quot;alt&quot;:&quot;An OERu course WEnotes feed aggregation page. Note the sources from which feed messages are drawn - our WEnotes aggregator checks many sources including personal blogs that learners have registered.&quot;}"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/2021-09/Screenshot%202021-09-06%20at%2014-54-40%20https%20course%20oeru%20org_lida101_wenotesfeed.png?itok=07Lv9rfB" width="220" height="156" alt="An OERu course WEnotes feed aggregation page. Note the sources from which feed messages are drawn - our WEnotes aggregator checks many sources including personal blogs that learners have registered." loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-medium" /> </a> </div> </figure> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><p>The <a href="https://oeru.org">OERu</a> offers accredited tertiary (University level) courses to learners anywhere on the Internet, whether they are using desktop computers or mobile devices.</p> <p>Instead of using a Learning Management System to frame the courses, the OERu Courses are hosted in a <a href="https://wordpress.org">WordPress</a> <a href="https://wordpress.org/support/article/create-a-network/">MultiSite</a> (originally called a "Network" of sites within a single WordPress installation) implementation, with each course a 'subsite' represented by sub-directory below the main site. For example, the first <a href="https://oeru.org/learning-in-a-digital-age/">Learning in a Digital Age</a> micro-course, "<a href="https://oeru.org/oeru-partners/otago-polytechnic/digital-literacies-for-online-learning/">Digital literacies for online learning</a>" with the course code <em>LiDA 101</em>, can be found at <a href="https://course.oeru.org/lida101">https://course.oeru.org/lida101</a>. This post explains how you can replicate our fully Free and Open Source Software large-scale Open Educational Resource (OER) course delivery platform at negligible cost.</p> <ul class="table-of-contents"><li> <p><a href="#step-one---a-suitable-host">Step one - a suitable host</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#get-your-domain-lined-up">Get your Domain lined up</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#log-into-your-server">Log into your server</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#sort-out-your-details">Sort out your details</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#step-two---prepare-the-host">Step two - prepare the host</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#set-up-docker-and-docker-compose">Set up Docker and Docker-Compose</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#step-three---configure-your-domain">Step three - configure your domain</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#set-up-nginx-reverse-proxy">Set up Nginx reverse proxy</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#set-up-lets-encrypt-for-the-domain">Set up Let's Encrypt for the domain</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#step-four---get-the-code">Step four - get the code</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#wordpress-source-code">WordPress source code</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#oeru-theme">OERu Theme</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#customise-wp-configphp">Customise wp-config.php</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#step-five---set-up-docker-compose-for-the-site">Step five - set up Docker Compose for the site</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#create-the-nginx-containers-configuration">Create the NGINX container's configuration</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#launch-containers">Launch containers</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#step-six---set-up-your-site">Step Six - set up your site</a></p> <ul><li> <p><a href="#install-wordpress">Install WordPress</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#enable-the-oeru-course-theme">Enable the OERu Course theme</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#create-an-admin-user">Create an admin user</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#enable-multisite">Enable multisite</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#enable-the-relevant-plugins">Enable the relevant plugins</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#third-party-plugins">Third Party plugins</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#oeru-plugins">OERu plugins</a></p> </li> </ul></li> <li> <p><a href="#step-seven---celebrate">Step Seven - celebrate!</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#snapshotting-your-first-oer-course">Snapshotting your first OER course!</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#enabling-oerus-register-enrol-functionality">Enabling OERu's Register Enrol functionality</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#data-backups">Data Backups</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#staying-up-to-date">Staying up-to-date</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="#acknowledgements">Acknowledgements</a></p> </li> </ul><p>To host our WordPress Multisite, we use a quartet of <a href="https://docs.docker.com/get-started/overview/">Docker</a> containers - a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redis">Redis</a> caching server, an <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nginx">Nginx</a> webserver, and two servers running the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PHP">PHP script interpreter</a> in <a href="https://www.php.net/manual/en/install.fpm.php">FPM</a> mode, with the first being the main workhorse responding to queries sent to it by the Nginx server... The other PHP container is responsible for running cron (scheduled) tasks in the background. It's all driven by <a href="https://docs.docker.com/compose/">Docker Compose</a> (which coordinates the individual Docker containers) on an Ubuntu Linux host. The host also runs an Nginx instance to act as a '<a href="https://www.nginx.com/resources/glossary/reverse-proxy-server/">reverse proxy</a>', and the endpoint of our <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_Layer_Security#SSL_1.0,_2.0,_and_3.0">SSL</a> (we use <a href="/node/11">Let's Encrypt</a> certificates). This is all consistent with our <a href="/node/39">FOSS Docker-based hosting conventions</a>.</p> <p>Although our process to get one of the these sites up and running is made up of simple steps, there are a bunch of them, so get comfortable and buckle yourself in and prepare for a fun ride! <em>Just beware - this is a pretty audacious tutorial describing an advanced production-ready system with lots of moving parts doing a serious amount of stuff behind the scenes, so this process is likely to take a few hours from start to finish and isn't for the faint of heart.</em></p> <h2><a id="user-content-step-one---a-suitable-host" href="#step-one---a-suitable-host" name="step-one---a-suitable-host" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Step one - a suitable host</h2> <p>The first step is to get yourself an entry-level virtual server or compute instance somewhere.</p> <p>I generally use <a href="https://digitalocean.com">DigitalOcean</a> (I have no affiliation with the company), but there are many other commodity hosting services (check out <a href="https://vultr.com">Vultr</a> or <a href="https://linode.com">Linode</a>, for example) around the world which offer comparably (or better) spec'd servers for USD5.00/month, or USD60.00/year. For that you get a Gigabyte (GB) of RAM, a processor, and 40GB of SSD (Static Storage Device = faster) storage.</p> <p>A server (a "Droplet" in Digital Ocean parlance) with a GB of RAM and 20+ GB of disk space will be sufficient for this sort of service. If you expect it to have heavy traffic, or you might want to add more services, you might want to invest in a higher-spec server up-front (because, among other things, it'll offer you more disk space). Most of our servers are USD40/month instances (USD480/year) which buys 8GB of RAM, 4 virtual processors, and 160GB of disk space.</p> <p>I suggest you create an account for yourself on your chosen hosting provider (and I encourage you to use Two Factor Authentication, aka 2FA, on your hosting account so that no one can log in as you and, say, delete your server unexpectedly - you'll find instructions on how to set up 2FA on your hosting provider's site) and create an Ubuntu 20.04 (or the most recent 'Long Term Support' (LTS) version - the next will be 22.04, in April 2022) in the zone nearest to you.</p> <p>If you don't already have an SSH key on your computer, I encourage you to <a href="https://support.atlassian.com/bitbucket-cloud/docs/set-up-an-ssh-key/">create one</a> and specify the <strong>public key</strong> in the process of creating your server - that should allow you to log in without needing a password!</p> <p>You'll need to note the server's IPv4 address (it'll be a series of 4 numbers, 0-254, separated by full stops, e.g. 103.99.72.244), and you should also be aware that your server will have a newer IPv6 address, which will be a set of 8 four hex character values [each hex character can have one of 16 values: 0-9,A-F] separated by colons, e.g. 2604:A880:0002:00D0:0000:0000:20DE:9001. With one or the other of those IPs, you can <a href="https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-use-ssh-to-connect-to-a-remote-server-in-ubuntu">log into it via SSH</a>.</p> <p>Once you get logged in, it's worth doing an upgrade of your server's Ubuntu system! Do that as follows:</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get update &amp;&amp; sudo apt-get dist-upgrade</code></p> <h3><a id="user-content-get-your-domain-lined-up" href="#get-your-domain-lined-up" name="get-your-domain-lined-up" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Get your Domain lined up</h3> <p>You will want to have a domain to point at your server, so you don't have to remember the IP number. There're are thousands of domain "registrars" in the world who'll help you do that... You just need to "register" a name, and you pay yearly fee (usually between USD10-30 depending on the country and the "TLD" (Top Level Domain. There're national ones like .nz, .au, .uk, .tv, .sa, .za, etc., or international domains (mostly associated with the US) like .com, .org, .net, and a myriad of others. Countries decide on how much their domains wholesale for and registrars add a margin for the registration service).</p> <p>Here in NZ, I use the services of Metaname (they're local to me in Christchurch, and I know them personally and trust their technical capabilities). If you're not sure who to use, ask your friends. Someone's bound to have recommendations (either positive or negative, in which case you'll know who to avoid).</p> <p>If you want to use your domain for other things besides your WordPress instance, I'd encourage you to use a subdomain, like (my usual choice) is "course.domainname", namely the subdomain "course" of "domainname".</p> <p>Once you have selected and registered your domain, you can set up (usually through a web interface provided by the registrar) an "A Record" which associates your website's name to the IPv4 address of your server. So you should just be able to enter your server's IPv4 address, the domain name (or sub-domain) you want to use for your WordPress service. Nowadays, <em>if your Domain Name host offers it (some don't, meaning they're way behind the times),</em> it's also important to define an IPv6 record, which is called an "AAAA Record"... you put in your IPv6 address instead of your IPv4 one.</p> <p>You might be asked to set a "Time-to-live" (which has to do with the length of time Domain Name Servers are asked to "cache" the association that the A Record specifies) in which case you can put in 3600 seconds or an hour depending on the time units your interface requests... but in most cases that'll be set to a default of an hour automatically.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-log-into-your-server" href="#log-into-your-server" name="log-into-your-server" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Log into your server</h3> <p>You should be able to test that your A and AAAA Records have been set correctly by logging into your server via SSH using your domain name rather than the IPv4 or IPv6 address you used previously. It should (after you accept the SSH warning that the server's name has a new name) work the same way your original SSH login did. On Linux, you'd SSH via a terminal and enter <code>ssh root@[domain name]</code>. I think you can do similar on MacOS and on Windows, I believe people typically use software called Putty...</p> <p>This will log you into your server as the 'root' user. It's not considered good practice to access your server as root (it's too easy to completely screw it up). Best practice is to create a separate 'non-root' user who has 'sudo' privileges and the ability to log in via SSH. If you are <em>currently logged in as 'root'</em>, you can create a normal user for yourself via (replace [username] with your chosen username):</p> <p><code>U=[username]</code><br /><code>adduser $U</code><br /><code>adduser $U ssh</code><br /><code>adduser $U sudoers</code></p> <p>You'll also want to a set a password for user [username]:</p> <p><code>passwd $U</code></p> <p>then become that user temporarily (note, the root user can 'become' another user without needing to enter a password) and create an SSH key and, in the process, the <code>.ssh</code> directory (directories starting with a '.' are normally 'hidden') for the file into which to put your public SSH key:</p> <p><code>su $U</code> <code>ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048</code> <code>nano ~/.ssh/authorized_keys</code></p> <p>and in that file, copy and paste (without spaces on either end) your <em>current computer's</em> <strong>public</strong> ssh key (<em>never publish</em> your private key anywhere!), save and close the file.</p> <p>From that point, you should be able to SSH to your server via <code>ssh [username]@[domain name]</code> without needing to enter a password.</p> <p>These instructions use 'sudo' in front of commands because I assume you're using a non-root user. The instructions will still work fine even if you're logged in as 'root'.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-sort-out-your-details" href="#sort-out-your-details" name="sort-out-your-details" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Sort out your details</h3> <p>You'll replace the similarly [named] variables in the configuration files and command lines below. These are the values you need to find or create.</p> <ul><li> <strong>[domain name]</strong> - the fully qualified domain name or subdomain by which you want your WPMS to be accessed. You must have full domain management ability on this domain. Example: <code>course.oeru.org</code> </li> <li> <strong>[port]</strong> - this is an unused port, i.e. not used by any other service, that will be used by the Nginx reverse proxy to talk to your Docker Nginx webserver container. A conventional option would be 8080... If that's already in use, try 8081, etc. You can check what ports are in use with the command <code>sudo netstat -punta</code> - the ports are listed after the ':' in each case</li> <li>MariaDB/MySQL database details <ul><li> <strong>[database root password]</strong> - the administrative user (root) password for this server - see <a href="/node/43">our tutorial on creating strong random passwords</a> </li> <li> <strong>[your database password]</strong> - if you, optionally, want to set up an admin user for yourself on this server. Paired with <strong>[your username]</strong> on the server.</li> <li> <strong>[database name]</strong> - the name of the database for this specific WordPress site - example <code>wordpress</code> </li> <li> <strong>[database user]</strong> - a separate username for this WordPress database - example <code>wordpress</code> (but it can be different too)- <strong>note</strong>: you'll be creating <em>two</em> database users with this same username and password, but that's intended.</li> <li> <strong>[database password]</strong> a separate password for this WordPress database user</li> </ul></li> <li>Authenticating SMTP details - this is required so your WordPress site can send emails to users - crucial things like email address validation and password recovery emails... <ul><li> <strong>[smtp host]</strong> - the domain name or IPv4 or IPv6 address of an SMTP server</li> <li> <strong>[smtp reply-to-email address]</strong> - a monitored email to which people can send email related to this WordPress site, e.g. webmaster@[domain name]</li> <li> <strong>[smtp user]</strong> - the username (often an email address) used to authenticate against your SMTP server, provided by your email provider.</li> <li> <strong>[smtp password]</strong> - the accompanying password, provided by your email provider.</li> </ul></li> <li>Wordpress configuration values <ul><li> <strong>[redis password]</strong> - another random password, this time for the caching service we'll set up to make your WordPress site faster than billy-o.</li> <li> <strong>[wordpress keys and salts]</strong> - a series of random numbers to make your WordPress site far more secure than it would otherwise be - <em>these can be generated automatically using the approach described below!</em>.</li> </ul></li> <li>For those incorporating our WEnotes system, you'll need the following (these values are optional and can be ignored!) <ul><li> <strong>[couchdb host]</strong> - the domain name of the couchdb host - in the case of the OERu, our host is couch.oerfoundation.org. Yours might be different.</li> <li> <strong>[couchdb mention database]</strong> - the name of the designated 'mention' database on the couchdb host.</li> <li> <strong>[couchdb user]</strong> - a couchdb username, provided by whoever manages your couchdb host</li> <li> <strong>[couchdb password]</strong> - a couchdb password, also provided by whoever manages your couchdb host</li> </ul></li> <li>Docker.com login details (you'll need a username and password).</li> </ul><p><strong>Note</strong>: not all values in all files surrounded by [] need to be replaced! If they're not included in the list above, leave them as you find them!</p> <h2><a id="user-content-step-two---prepare-the-host" href="#step-two---prepare-the-host" name="step-two---prepare-the-host" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Step two - prepare the host</h2> <p>Preparing the host involves ensuring your firewall, UFW, is configured properly, installing the Nginx webserver to act as your host's reverse proxy, and installing MariaDB (MySQL compatible but better, for a variety of reasons including that it's not controlled by Oracle) and configuring it properly. Then we can create the MariaDB database specifically for this WordPress installation. We also suggest you install Postfix so your server can send out email to you, and finally, we'll ensure that your server knows how to launch Docker containers and manage them with Docker Compose.</p> <p>Before we do anything else, let's make sure your Ubuntu package repository is up-to-date.</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get update</code></p> <p>If you pause this build process for more than a few hours, it pays to run it again before you continue on.</p> <h4><a id="user-content-firewall-with-ufw" href="#firewall-with-ufw" name="firewall-with-ufw" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Firewall with UFW</h4> <p>No computer system is ever full secure - there're always exploits waiting to be found, so security is a process of maintaining vigilance. Part of that is reducing exposure - minimising your "attack surface". Use a firewall - <code>ufw</code> is installed on Ubuntu by default and is easy to set up and maintain. Make sure you've got exceptions for SSH (without them, you could lock yourself out of your machine! Doh!).</p> <p>Run the following commands to allow your Docker containers to talk to other services on your host.</p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow in on docker0</code><br /><code>sudo ufw allow from 172.0.0.0/8 to any</code></p> <p>Specifically for Docker's benefit, you need to tweak the default Forwarding rule (I use <code>vim</code> as my editor. An alternative, also installed by default on Ubuntu, <code>nano</code>, is probably easier to use for simple edits like this, so I'll use <code>nano</code> here):</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/default/ufw</code></p> <p>and copy the line <code>DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY="DROP"</code> tweak it to look like this (commenting out the default, but leaving it there for future reference!):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0">#DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY="DROP"</span> <span class="re2">DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY</span>=<span class="st0">"ACCEPT"</span></pre></div></div> <p>and then save and exit the file (CTRL-X and then 'Y').</p> <p>You also have to edit <code>/etc/ufw/sysctl.conf</code> and remove the "#" at the start of the following lines, so they look like this:</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf</code></p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Uncomment this to allow this host to route packets between interfaces</span> net<span class="sy0">/</span>ipv4<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re2">ip_forward</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span> net<span class="sy0">/</span>ipv6<span class="sy0">/</span>conf<span class="sy0">/</span>default<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re2">forwarding</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span> net<span class="sy0">/</span>ipv6<span class="sy0">/</span>conf<span class="sy0">/</span>all<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re2">forwarding</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span></pre></div></div> <p>and finally restart the network stack and ufw on your server</p> <p><code>sudo systemctl restart systemd-networkd</code><br /><code>sudo service ufw restart</code></p> <h4><a id="user-content-installing-the-nginx-webserverreverse-proxy" href="#installing-the-nginx-webserverreverse-proxy" name="installing-the-nginx-webserverreverse-proxy" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Installing the Nginx webserver/reverse proxy</h4> <p>In the configuration I'm describing here, you'll need a webserver running on the server - it'll be acting as a reverse proxy for the Docker-based Nginx instance described below. I prefer the efficiency of Nginx and clarity of Nginx configurations over those of Apache and other open source web servers. Here's how you install it.</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install nginx-full</code></p> <p>To allow <code>nginx</code> to be visible via ports 80 and 443, run</p> <p><code>sudo ufw allow "Nginx Full"</code></p> <p>To check that all worked, you can put <code>http://[domain name]</code> into your browser's address bar, and you should see a default "NGINX" page...</p> <p>Note: make sure your hosting service is not blocking these ports at some outer layer (depending on who's providing that hosting service you may have to set up port forwarding).</p> <h4><a id="user-content-installing-mariadb" href="#installing-mariadb" name="installing-mariadb" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Installing MariaDB</h4> <p>MariaDB is effectively a drop-in alternative to MySQL and we prefer it because it's not controlled by Oracle and has a more active developer community. On Ubuntu, MariaDB pretends to be MySQL for compatibility purposes, so don't be weirded out by the interchangeable names below. Install the latest versions of the server and client like this.</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install mariadb-server mariadb-client</code></p> <p>You need to set a root (admin) user password - you might want to create a <code>/root/.my.cnf</code> file containing the following (replacing [mysql root password]) to let you access MariaDB without a password from the commandline:</p> <p><code>sudo nano /root/.my.cnf </code></p> <p>and put the following info into it</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="br0">[</span>client<span class="br0">]</span> <span class="re2">user</span>=root <span class="re2">password</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>database root password<span class="br0">]</span></pre></div></div> <p>You should now be able to type <code>mysql</code> at the command prompt (note, the name mysql is used for backward compatibility with many implementations where MariaDB is being used to replace MySQL).</p> <p><strong>Optional MySQL non-root user</strong></p> <p>If you're happy to use your root user to access MySQL, e.g. <code>sudo mysql</code> (which uses 'sudo' to access it via the root user), then you can safely ignore the rest of this section.</p> <p>If you're accessing the server via a non-root user (which is a good idea, and is the reason we use <code>sudo</code> in this howto), you might want to create a similar <code>~/.my.cnf</code> file in your directory , with your username in place of <code>root</code>, and a <em>different password</em>. That will allow you to work with the MariaDB client without needing to enter the root credentials each time.</p> <p>To make it work, you'll need to run the following as the MySQL admin user - this should be the default on this new install - remember to replace your [tokens]!). This creates <em>two</em> users with the same credentials that will allow you to log in either from the same server (i.e. 'localhost') or from any of your Docker containers (often useful for debugging!), namely the wildcard '%'. <strong>Remember</strong>: if you change the user's details, you'll have to do it for both the localhost and '%' users.</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">CREATE USER <span class="st0">"[your username]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"localhost"</span> IDENTIFIED BY <span class="st0">"[your database password]"</span>; CREATE USER <span class="st0">"[your username]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"%"</span> IDENTIFIED BY <span class="st0">"[your database password]"</span>; GRANT ALL ON <span class="sy0">*</span>.<span class="sy0">*</span> to <span class="st0">"[your username]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"localhost"</span> WITH GRANT OPTION; GRANT ALL ON <span class="sy0">*</span>.<span class="sy0">*</span> to <span class="st0">"[your username]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"%"</span> WITH GRANT OPTION; FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</pre></div></div> <p>Don't be alarmed if MySQL tells you "0 rows affected" when you create a user - unless you see a specific 'error', it's still creating them.</p> <p><strong>End optional MySQL non-root user section</strong></p> <p>Tweak the configuration so that it's listening on the right internal network device.</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf</code></p> <p>and copy the bind-address line and adjust so it looks like this - we want MariaDB to be listening on all interfaces, not just localhost (<code>127.0.0.1</code>)...</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on</span> <span class="co0"># localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure.</span> <span class="co0">#bind-address = 127.0.0.1</span> bind-address = 0.0.0.0</pre></div></div> <p>Then restart MariaDB:</p> <p><code>sudo service mysql restart</code></p> <p>It should now be listening on MySQL/MariaDB's default port <code>3306</code> on all interfaces, i.e. <code>0.0.0.0</code>. For safety's sake, external access to the MariaDB server is blocked by your UFW firewall.</p> <p>Now set up the database which will hold WordPress' data. Log into the MariaDB client on the host (if you've created a <code>.my.cnf</code> file in your home directory as describe above, you won't need to enter your username and password):</p> <p><code>mysql -u root -p</code></p> <p>Enter your root password when prompted and then replace the following [database-related tokens] to create the database with the right language encoding, along with access to the right separate user:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">CREATE DATABASE <span class="br0">[</span>database name<span class="br0">]</span> CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_unicode_ci; CREATE USER <span class="st0">"[database user]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"%"</span> IDENTIFIED BY <span class="st0">"[database password]"</span>; GRANT ALL ON <span class="br0">[</span>database name<span class="br0">]</span>.<span class="sy0">*</span> to <span class="st0">"[database user]"</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="st0">"%"</span>; FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</pre></div></div> <p>The last line ensures that MariaDB has updated its internal permissions to recognise your new user. To exit the SQL client, just type <code>\q</code> and ENTER.</p> <h4><a id="user-content-sending-emails" href="#sending-emails" name="sending-emails" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Sending emails</h4> <p>Because a server like this one is set up to perform lots of rather complex jobs to perform, it's vital that your server has the ability to send you emails to alert you of problems, like failed updates or backups. We encourage you to follow our instructions on <a href="/node/28">how to configure your server to use the <code>Postfix</code> SMTP server to send out email, using your Authenticating SMTP details</a>.</p> <h4><a id="user-content-regular-automatic-database-backups" href="#regular-automatic-database-backups" name="regular-automatic-database-backups" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Regular automatic database backups</h4> <p>Finally, it's a good idea (but optional - if you're in a hurry, you can do this later) to make sure that your server is maintaining backups of your database - in this case, we'll use the <code>automysqlbackup</code> script to automatically maintain a set of dated daily database backups. It's easy to install, and the database backups will be in <code>/var/lib/automysqlbackup</code> in dated folders and files. <strong>If you haven't set up Postfix in the previous step, just beware you will be asked to set it up when installing automysqlbackup</strong>.</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install automysqlbackup</code></p> <p>That's all there is to it. It should run automatically every night and store a set of historical SQL snapshots that may well save your bacon sometime down the track!</p> <h3><a id="user-content-set-up-docker-and-docker-compose" href="#set-up-docker-and-docker-compose" name="set-up-docker-and-docker-compose" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Set up Docker and Docker-Compose</h3> <p>First, you need to set up <a href="https://docs.docker.com/install/linux/docker-ce/ubuntu/">Docker support</a> on your server - use the 'repository method' for Ubuntu 20.04 and choose the 'x86_64 / amd64' tab!</p> <p>Also, if you're using a non-root user, follow the complete instructions including <em><a href="https://docs.docker.com/engine/install/linux-postinstall/">setting up Docker for your non-root user</a></em>.</p> <p>The way I implement this set of containers is to use <a href="https://docs.docker.com/compose/">Docker Compose</a>) which depends on the Python script interpreter (version 3+). I suggest using the latest installation instructions provided by the Docker community. Of the options provided, I use the 'alternative instructions', employing <a href="https://docs.docker.com/compose/install/#install-using-pip">the 'pip' approach</a>. This is what I usually do (to summarise the pip instructions):</p> <p>The firrst step is to Install Ubuntu's Python3 pip which is a bit outdated...</p> <p><code>sudo apt install python3-pip</code></p> <p>use the Ubuntu instance, called pip3 to install the latest Python 3 pip</p> <p><code>sudo pip install -U pip</code></p> <p>and (finally) install the docker-compose script:</p> <p><code>sudo pip install -U docker-compose</code></p> <h4><a id="user-content-set-up-our-conventional-directories" href="#set-up-our-conventional-directories" name="set-up-our-conventional-directories" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Set up our conventional directories</h4> <p>To set up your server, I recommend setting up a place for your Docker containers as per our <a href="/node/39">Docker-related conventions</a>:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir -p /home/data/[domain name]</code><br /><code>sudo mkdir -p /home/docker/[domain name]</code></p> <h2><a id="user-content-step-three---configure-your-domain" href="#step-three---configure-your-domain" name="step-three---configure-your-domain" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Step three - configure your domain</h2> <h3><a id="user-content-set-up-nginx-reverse-proxy" href="#set-up-nginx-reverse-proxy" name="set-up-nginx-reverse-proxy" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Set up Nginx reverse proxy</h3> <p>A reverse proxy is a website intermediary. It accepts requests from the Internet, like a normal webserver would, but instead of having direct access to the data being requested, it, in turn, makes a request from another webserver either on the same host, or on a different one, and passes the results of that request back to the requester. In this case, the Nginx instance on the host is making a request of a <em>different host</em> that happens to reside on the same host instance as a Docker 'container'.</p> <p>Our convention is to create an Nginx reverse proxy configuration file with the same name as our [domain name], so in the case of, say, our Course WordPress Multisite, the file would be <code>/etc/nginx/sites-available/course.oeru.org</code>. Create a file in your <code>/etc/nginx/sites-available</code> with the following (again, replacing the [values] with your own values.</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/[domain name]</code></p> <p>and copy and paste this in (and remember to replace the [tokens] with your relevant variables!):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># Set [domain name] and [port] below to make this work</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># HTTP does *soft* redirect to HTTPS</span> <span class="co0">#</span> server <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="co0"># add [IP-Address:]80 in the next line if you want to limit this to a single interface</span> listen <span class="nu0">80</span>; listen <span class="br0">[</span>::<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="nu0">80</span>; server_name <span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>; root <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>scr; index index.php;   <span class="co0"># change the file name of these logs to include your server name</span> <span class="co0"># if hosting many services...</span> access_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>_access.log; error_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>_error.log;   <span class="co0"># for let's encrypt renewals!</span> include includes<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt.conf;   <span class="co0"># redirect all HTTP traffic to HTTPS.</span> location <span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="kw3">return</span> <span class="nu0">302</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="re1">$request_uri</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># HTTPS</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># This assumes you're using Let's Encrypt for your SSL certs (and why wouldn't</span> <span class="co0"># you!?)... https://letsencrypt.org</span> server <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="co0"># add [IP-Address:]443 ssl in the next line if you want to limit this to a single interface</span> listen <span class="nu0">443</span> ssl; listen <span class="br0">[</span>::<span class="br0">]</span>:<span class="nu0">443</span> ssl; <span class="co0"># Note: these are *temporary* certificates, created when your host was set up</span> <span class="co0"># they are only in use to get Nginx to start up properly and let you create your let's encrypt certificates!</span> ssl_certificate <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem; ssl_certificate_key <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>private<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl-cert-snakeoil.key; <span class="co0"># these will be used after we finish the Let's Encrypt process</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/[domain name]/fullchain.pem;</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/[domain name]/privkey.pem;</span> ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2; <span class="co0"># to create this, see https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/Strong_SSL_Security_On_nginx.html</span> ssl_dhparam <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>ssl<span class="sy0">/</span>certs<span class="sy0">/</span>dhparam.pem; keepalive_timeout 20s;   server_name <span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>; root <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>src; index index.php;   <span class="co0"># change the file name of these logs to include your server name</span> <span class="co0"># if hosting many services...</span> access_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>_access.log; error_log <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>log<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span>_error.log;   location <span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="co0"># a good value for [port] is 8080, unless it's already in use by another service on your server...</span> proxy_pass http:<span class="sy0">//</span>127.0.0.1:<span class="br0">[</span>port<span class="br0">]</span>; proxy_set_header Upgrade <span class="re1">$http_upgrade</span>; proxy_set_header Connection <span class="st0">"upgrade"</span>; proxy_set_header Host <span class="re1">$http_host</span>; proxy_set_header X-Real-IP <span class="re1">$remote_addr</span>; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For <span class="re1">$proxy_add_x_forwarded_for</span>; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host <span class="re1">$server_name</span>; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto https; proxy_connect_timeout <span class="nu0">900</span>; proxy_send_timeout <span class="nu0">900</span>; proxy_read_timeout <span class="nu0">900</span>; send_timeout <span class="nu0">900</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># These "harden" your security</span> add_header <span class="st_h">'Access-Control-Allow-Origin'</span> <span class="st0">"*"</span>; <span class="co0"># from https://gist.github.com/Stanback/7145487</span> add_header <span class="st_h">'Access-Control-Allow-Credentials'</span> <span class="st_h">'true'</span> always; add_header <span class="st_h">'Access-Control-Allow-Methods'</span> <span class="st_h">'GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, OPTIONS'</span> always; add_header <span class="st_h">'Access-Control-Allow-Headers'</span> <span class="st_h">'Accept,Authorization,Cache-Control,Content-Type,DNT,If-Modified-Since,Keep-Alive,Origin,User-Agent,X-Requested-With'</span> always; <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># for H5P embedding</span> <span class="co0">#add_header 'X-Frame-Options' 'ALLOW-FROM https://h5p.oeru.org';</span> <span class="co0"># required to be able to read Authorization header in frontend</span> add_header <span class="st_h">'Access-Control-Expose-Headers'</span> <span class="st_h">'Authorization'</span> always; <span class="co0"># tested at https://csp-evaluator.withgoogle.com/</span> <span class="co0"># works, but only B+ on MozOBs https://observatory.mozilla.org/analyze.html</span> add_header X-XSS-Protection <span class="st0">"1; mode=block"</span>; <span class="br0">}</span></pre></div></div> <p>Having created that file, we now have to create the <code>ssl_dhparam</code> file we referenced, staring by installing OpenSSL tools:</p> <p><code>sudo apt-get install openssl</code></p> <p>by running (warning - this can take quite a long time - like 5-15 minutes in my experience, depending on a lot of factors - the system needs to generate sufficient entropy to achieve acceptable randomness):</p> <p><code>sudo openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem 4096</code></p> <p>if you're short on time, you can create a key half the size far more quickly (a few seconds, typically):</p> <p><code>sudo openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem 2048</code></p> <p>When that's done, you should see there's a file here: <code>ls -l /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem</code></p> <h3><a id="user-content-set-up-lets-encrypt-for-the-domain" href="#set-up-lets-encrypt-for-the-domain" name="set-up-lets-encrypt-for-the-domain" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Set up Let's Encrypt for the domain</h3> <p>We've already written a guide to setting up and securing your domain with <a href="/node/11">Let's Encrypt</a> but here're the relevant details:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir /etc/nginx/includes</code></p> <p>and edit the following file</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/nginx/includes/letsencrypt.conf</code></p> <p>to make sure it has the following content:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Rule for legitimate ACME Challenge requests</span> location ^~ <span class="sy0">/</span>.well-known<span class="sy0">/</span>acme-challenge<span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> default_type <span class="st0">"text/plain"</span>; <span class="co0"># this can be any directory, but this name keeps it clear</span> root <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt; <span class="br0">}</span>   <span class="co0"># Hide /acme-challenge subdirectory and return 404 on all requests.</span> <span class="co0"># It is somewhat more secure than letting Nginx return 403.</span> <span class="co0"># Ending slash is important!</span> location = <span class="sy0">/</span>.well-known<span class="sy0">/</span>acme-challenge<span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="kw3">return</span> <span class="nu0">404</span>; <span class="br0">}</span></pre></div></div> <p>Next, make sure your designated Let's Encrypt directory exists (note - you only need to do this once on a given host):</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir /var/www/letsencrypt</code></p> <p>Now, we'll make sure Nginx is aware of your configuration, which you do like this (substituting [domain name] with your domain!):</p> <p><code>sudo ln -sf /etc/nginx/sites-available/[domain name] /etc/nginx/sites-enabled</code></p> <p>then make sure Nginx is happy with your configuration syntax:</p> <p><code>sudo nginx -t</code></p> <p>and fix any typos which might've crept in. If it says your configurations are okay, then make your configuration live:</p> <p><code>sudo service nginx reload</code></p> <p>Once this is done, you can check to see if things are working properly by entering <code>http://[domain name]</code> in your browser's address bar. It <em>should</em> redirect you to <code>http**s**://[domain name]</code> <em>and</em> give you an error that there's a 'mismatch' in your certificates... which there is: my configuration approach means the server and your reverse proxy configuration are <em>temporarily</em> using the default "SnakeOil" SSL certificate pair (required to get Nginx to start in SSL mode), but your Nginx configuration is working to the extent required for us to request our Let's Encrypt certificate!</p> <p>And here's how we actually generate your SSL certificat via Let's Encrypt (replacing [domain name] as appropriate):</p> <p><code>sudo letsencrypt certonly --webroot -w /var/www/letsencrypt -d [domain name]</code></p> <p>If it works, it gratifyingly results in a message that starts with "Congratulations"! Well done if you got that! Note, if you get an error, make sure your domain is properly configured to point to your server! Also, there could be a delay in that configuration change taking effect due to the vagueries of the DNS system. If it worked, you should have a set of certificates in the directories, currently commented out with leading "#"s, in the Nginx configuration file above. You'll now need to re-edit it</p> <p><code>sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/[domain name]</code></p> <p>to change it so the relevant part looks like this (again, ensuring your [domain name] is in place in the relevant locations!):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"> <span class="co0"># Note: these are *temporary* certificates, created when your host was set up</span> <span class="co0"># they are only in use to get Nginx to start up properly and let you create your let's encrypt certificates!</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem;</span> <span class="co0">#ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key;</span> <span class="co0"># these will be used after we finish the Let's Encrypt process</span> ssl_certificate <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt<span class="sy0">/</span>live<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>fullchain.pem; ssl_certificate_key <span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>letsencrypt<span class="sy0">/</span>live<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>privkey.pem;</pre></div></div> <p>and then we need to do our obligatory configuration test:</p> <p><code>sudo nginx -t</code></p> <p>and if Nginx is happy, reload the configuration to put it into effect:</p> <p><code>sudo service nginx reload</code></p> <p>Now, if you point your browser at <code>http://[domain name]</code>, it should automatically redirect to <code>https://[domain name]</code> without any errors, except that it won't yet have any content to show you, so you might get a 404 error, which is expected!</p> <h2><a id="user-content-step-four---get-the-code" href="#step-four---get-the-code" name="step-four---get-the-code" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Step four - get the code</h2> <p>Next we have to get all the relevant code for the WordPress site and its dependencies.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-wordpress-source-code" href="#wordpress-source-code" name="wordpress-source-code" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>WordPress source code</h3> <p>The latest source code for WordPress is always available from <a href="https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz">https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz</a> - we'll get a copy of it now and put it in the right place:</p> <p><code>cd /home/data/[domain name]</code><br /><code>sudo wget https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz</code><br /><code>sudo tar xvfz latest.tar.gz &amp;&amp; sudo mv wordpress src</code></p> <p>After this, you should find a directory, <code>src</code> in your [domain name] directory. That contains all the default source code for WordPress including default themes and plugins.</p> <p>Next, we have to make sure the default theme is in place, and then set up the WordPress multisite configuration process.</p> <p>Later we'll get the assortment of third party plugins and custom OERu plugins needed to flesh out the WordPress functionality we need.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-oeru-theme" href="#oeru-theme" name="oeru-theme" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>OERu Theme</h3> <p>First, we'll get the OERu theme, which is specially designed to provide an accessible desktop <em>or mobile</em> experience, given that many - even a majority - of our learners are in the developing world, where mobile computing is dominant!</p> <p>We'll go to the theme directory - you should already be in <code>/home/data/[domain name]</code>. From there we go into the theme directory:</p> <p><code>cd src/wp-content/themes</code></p> <p>and we issue a <code>git clone</code> command to retrieve the latest version of the OERu theme from our git repository:</p> <p><code>sudo git clone https://git.oeru.org/oeru/oeru_course.git oeru-course</code></p> <p>Then it's time to customise our WordPress configuration.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-customise-wp-configphp" href="#customise-wp-configphp" name="customise-wp-configphp" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Customise wp-config.php</h3> <p>First we need to create your wp-config.php file in your <code>src</code> directory:</p> <p><code>sudo nano wp-config.php</code></p> <p>Note: you'll need your password for Redis and a set of <strong>[wordpress keys and salts]</strong>, both of which are essentially just random numbers that are used to make you site far more secure. You can use the <a href="https://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/salt/">this link</a> to generate a set of random values suitable for copying-and-pasting into you <code>wp-config.php</code> file in your <code>src</code> directory - here's an example of the output I just requested (<strong>don't use these, generate your own</strong>):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'AUTH_KEY'</span>, <span class="st_h">'?4^Huc~R1=WW+T_p~.0dH$XJ`&gt;U*MoreMmZ{@tORSFG3aX37#ZS+0ou{j^DS3{f&lt;'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'SECURE_AUTH_KEY'</span>, <span class="st_h">'7.k4htjPnrA/?6JJlogA4Wp*o|,&amp;&amp;&gt;;20ppqeqHq#gI &lt;%gDz[o( hpRRB|!jws%'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'LOGGED_IN_KEY'</span>, <span class="st_h">'fTX,WkI=doAUE%?{zHp5.?fN%WWtBuy~`Scntr&lt;]I1WvlF6i=7J kjO0Z%%~Z-`N'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'NONCE_KEY'</span>, <span class="st_h">'?p&amp;]/*(G-+W!0#[&amp;Y6KKj)j Ok5QI(SUc@@rv,ivtF&gt; AR;Yv+Yu#&gt;$B$&lt;P9Ld|j'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'AUTH_SALT'</span>, <span class="st_h">'H6s2H~KP]Z7YXTFt|8[Lgz[1~5wF+PJzxR^KW$|he+9|RF/vi@}/|&lt;8bkC:w)qW%'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'SECURE_AUTH_SALT'</span>, <span class="st_h">'@- j6Kn CjP/mdbmLXtkC+&gt;1&gt;+H-8pXETlJ4+]b-9x_/t*.D}VA1w&lt;^A?0 R&lt;f+1'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'LOGGED_IN_SALT'</span>, <span class="st_h">' y9:oh)]nA$}%9N-xk1MAQN1bH 8z{UD/e~K|G5{(9y|,n2E*,KwYPIf~HwhHT J'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'NONCE_SALT'</span>, <span class="st_h">'|B?p#Q4|.=[VL8)2AX;zy-R2;x#dqIo=!C3,;OACT%-uaQ7Li5KSVSSnLahwlZ+o'</span><span class="br0">)</span>;</pre></div></div> <p>This is what your <code>wp-config.php</code> file should look like - copy and paste the following into the file, replacing the relevant [tokens] with your versions (in particular note that the above wordpress keys and salts need to go where I've got the token [wordpress keys and salts] below):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="sy0">&lt;</span>?php <span class="sy0">/**</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> The base configuration <span class="kw1">for</span> WordPress <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> The wp-config.php creation script uses this <span class="kw2">file</span> during the <span class="sy0">*</span> installation. You don<span class="st_h">'t have to use the web site, you can * copy this file to "wp-config.php" and fill in the values. * * This file contains the following configurations: * * * MySQL settings * * Secret keys * * Database table prefix * * ABSPATH * * @link https://codex.wordpress.org/Editing_wp-config.php * * @package WordPress */   // ** MySQL settings - You can get this info from your web host ** // /** The name of the database for WordPress */ define('</span>DB_NAME<span class="st_h">', '</span><span class="br0">[</span>database name<span class="st_h">');   /** MySQL database username */ define('</span>DB_USER<span class="st_h">', '</span><span class="br0">[</span>database user<span class="br0">]</span><span class="st_h">');   /** MySQL database password */ define('</span>DB_PASSWORD<span class="st_h">', '</span><span class="br0">[</span>database password<span class="br0">]</span><span class="st_h">');   /** MySQL hostname */ //define('</span>DB_HOST<span class="st_h">', '</span>10.10.10.1<span class="st_h">'); define('</span>DB_HOST<span class="st_h">', '</span>172.17.0.1<span class="st_h">');   /** Database Charset to use in creating database tables. */ define('</span>DB_CHARSET<span class="st_h">', '</span>utf8mb4<span class="st_h">'); //define('</span>DB_CHARSET<span class="st_h">', '</span>utf8<span class="st_h">');   /** The Database Collate type. Don'</span>t change this <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="kw1">in</span> doubt. <span class="sy0">*/</span> define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'DB_COLLATE'</span>, <span class="st_h">''</span><span class="br0">)</span>;   <span class="sy0">/**</span><span class="co0">#@+</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> Authentication Unique Keys and Salts. <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> Change these to different unique phrases<span class="sy0">!</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> You can generate these using the <span class="br0">{</span><span class="sy0">@</span><span class="kw2">link</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span>api.wordpress.org<span class="sy0">/</span>secret-key<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="nu0">1.1</span><span class="sy0">/</span>salt<span class="sy0">/</span> WordPress.org secret-key service<span class="br0">}</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> You can change these at any point <span class="kw1">in</span> <span class="kw1">time</span> to invalidate all existing cookies. This will force all <span class="kw2">users</span> to have to log <span class="kw1">in</span> again. <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="sy0">@</span>since 2.6.0 <span class="sy0">*/</span> <span class="br0">[</span>wordpress keys and salts<span class="br0">]</span>   <span class="sy0">/**</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> WordPress Database Table prefix. <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> You can have multiple installations <span class="kw1">in</span> one database <span class="kw1">if</span> you give each <span class="sy0">*</span> a unique prefix. Only numbers, letters, and underscores please<span class="sy0">!</span> <span class="sy0">*/</span> <span class="re1">$table_prefix</span> = <span class="st_h">'wp_'</span>;   <span class="sy0">/**</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> For developers: WordPress debugging mode. <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> Change this to <span class="kw2">true</span> to <span class="kw3">enable</span> the display of notices during development. <span class="sy0">*</span> It is strongly recommended that plugin and theme developers use WP_DEBUG <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="kw1">in</span> their development environments. <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> For information on other constants that can be used <span class="kw1">for</span> debugging, <span class="sy0">*</span> visit the Codex. <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="sy0">@</span><span class="kw2">link</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span>codex.wordpress.org<span class="sy0">/</span>Debugging_in_WordPress <span class="sy0">*/</span> define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_DEBUG'</span>, <span class="kw2">false</span><span class="br0">)</span>; <span class="sy0">//</span>define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_DEBUG'</span>, <span class="kw2">true</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'CONCATENATE_SCRIPTS'</span>, <span class="kw2">false</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'SCRIPT_DEBUG'</span>, <span class="kw2">true</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_DEBUG'</span>, <span class="kw2">true</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_DISABLE_FATAL_ERROR_HANDLER'</span>, <span class="kw2">true</span> <span class="br0">)</span>; <span class="sy0">//</span> <span class="nu0">5.2</span> and later   <span class="sy0">/*</span> We are behind a reverse proxy <span class="sy0">*/</span> <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="br0">(</span>isset<span class="br0">(</span><span class="re1">$_SERVER</span><span class="br0">[</span><span class="st_h">'HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR'</span><span class="br0">]</span><span class="br0">)</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="re1">$forwarded_address</span> = explode<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">','</span>, <span class="re1">$_SERVER</span><span class="br0">[</span><span class="st_h">'HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR'</span><span class="br0">]</span><span class="br0">)</span>; <span class="re1">$_SERVER</span><span class="br0">[</span><span class="st_h">'REMOTE_ADDR'</span><span class="br0">]</span> = <span class="re1">$forwarded_address</span><span class="br0">[</span><span class="nu0">0</span><span class="br0">]</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="br0">(</span>isset<span class="br0">(</span><span class="re1">$_SERVER</span><span class="br0">[</span><span class="st_h">'HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO'</span><span class="br0">]</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="sy0">&amp;&amp;</span> <span class="re1">$_SERVER</span><span class="br0">[</span><span class="st_h">'HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO'</span><span class="br0">]</span> == <span class="st_h">'https'</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="re1">$_SERVER</span><span class="br0">[</span><span class="st_h">'HTTPS'</span><span class="br0">]</span> = <span class="st_h">'on'</span>; <span class="br0">}</span>   <span class="sy0">/*</span> Disable the default <span class="st_h">'ad hoc'</span> cron mechanism. We<span class="st_h">'ll use actual cron instead. */ define('</span>DISABLE_WP_CRON<span class="st_h">', true);   /* That'</span>s all, stop editing<span class="sy0">!</span> Happy blogging. <span class="sy0">*/</span>   <span class="sy0">/**</span> Absolute path to the WordPress directory. <span class="sy0">*/</span> <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="br0">(</span> <span class="sy0">!</span>defined<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'ABSPATH'</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">)</span> define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'ABSPATH'</span>, <span class="kw2">dirname</span><span class="br0">(</span>__FILE__<span class="br0">)</span> . <span class="st_h">'/'</span><span class="br0">)</span>;   <span class="sy0">/*</span> Multisite <span class="sy0">*/</span> <span class="sy0">//</span> see https:<span class="sy0">//</span>wordpress.org<span class="sy0">/</span>support<span class="sy0">/</span>article<span class="sy0">/</span>create-a-network<span class="sy0">/</span> define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_ALLOW_MULTISITE'</span>, <span class="kw2">true</span><span class="br0">)</span>; <span class="sy0">/*</span>define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'MULTISITE'</span>, <span class="kw2">true</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'SUBDOMAIN_INSTALL'</span>, <span class="kw2">false</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'DOMAIN_CURRENT_SITE'</span>, <span class="st_h">'[domain name]'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'PATH_CURRENT_SITE'</span>, <span class="st_h">'/'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'SITE_ID_CURRENT_SITE'</span>, <span class="nu0">1</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'BLOG_ID_CURRENT_SITE'</span>, <span class="nu0">1</span><span class="br0">)</span>;<span class="sy0">*/</span>   <span class="sy0">/*</span> disable trash, immediately permanently delete <span class="sy0">*/</span> define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'EMPTY_TRASH_DAYS'</span>, <span class="nu0">0</span><span class="br0">)</span>; <span class="sy0">/*</span> <span class="kw1">set</span> the default theme <span class="kw1">for</span> the network <span class="sy0">*/</span> define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_DEFAULT_THEME'</span>, <span class="st_h">'oeru_course'</span><span class="br0">)</span>;   <span class="sy0">/**</span> Caching-related configuration <span class="sy0">*/</span> <span class="sy0">/**</span> Redis <span class="sy0">*/</span> define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_REDIS_HOST'</span>, <span class="st_h">'redis'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_REDIS_PASSWORD'</span>, <span class="st_h">'[redis password]'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_REDIS_PATH'</span>, <span class="st_h">'/tmp/cache'</span><span class="br0">)</span>;   <span class="sy0">/*</span> WEnotes plugin configuration, commented out by default <span class="sy0">*/</span> <span class="sy0">/*</span> this is optional<span class="br0">(</span><span class="sy0">!!</span><span class="br0">)</span> - only use <span class="kw1">if</span> you<span class="st_h">'re deploying the OERu WEnotes stack - contact us if you want help! */ /*define('</span>WENOTES_HOST<span class="st_h">', '</span><span class="br0">[</span>couchdb host<span class="br0">]</span><span class="st_h">'); define('</span>WENOTES_PORT<span class="st_h">', '</span><span class="nu0">80</span><span class="st_h">'); define('</span>WENOTES_DB<span class="st_h">', '</span><span class="br0">[</span>couchdb mention database<span class="br0">]</span><span class="st_h">'); define('</span>WENOTES_USER<span class="st_h">', '</span><span class="br0">[</span>couchdb user<span class="br0">]</span><span class="st_h">'); define('</span>WENOTES_PASS<span class="st_h">', '</span><span class="br0">[</span>couchdb password<span class="br0">]</span><span class="st_h">');*/   // go to /wp-admin/maint/repair.php to see if a repair is needed... //define( '</span>WP_ALLOW_REPAIR<span class="st_h">', true );     /** Sets up WordPress vars and included files. */ require_once(ABSPATH . '</span>wp-settings.php<span class="st_h">');</span></pre></div></div> <h2><a id="user-content-step-five---set-up-docker-compose-for-the-site" href="#step-five---set-up-docker-compose-for-the-site" name="step-five---set-up-docker-compose-for-the-site" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Step five - set up Docker Compose for the site</h2> <p>The recipe for the four Docker containers that together provide the WordPress multisite service is pretty straightforward. All you need to do is go into <code>/home/docker/[domain name]</code> and</p> <p><code>sudo nano docker-compose.yml</code></p> <p>and enter the following, replacing the [tokens] as usual - note, if you don't have the <em>same value</em> for [port] specified below as you do in your 'reverse proxy' configuration above, <em>nothing</em> will work:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">version: <span class="st0">"3"</span>   services: redis: image: redis:alpine command: redis-server <span class="re5">--requirepass</span> <span class="br0">[</span>redis password<span class="br0">]</span> networks: default: aliases: - redis.<span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span> php: image: oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>php74-fpm-wpms links: - redis volumes: - <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>src:<span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>html environment: - <span class="re2">SMTP_HOST</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>smtp host<span class="br0">]</span> - <span class="re2">SMTP_PORT</span>=<span class="nu0">587</span> - <span class="re2">SMTP_REPLYTO_EMAIL</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>smtp reply-to email address<span class="br0">]</span> - <span class="re2">SMTP_AUTH_USER</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>smtp user<span class="br0">]</span> - <span class="re2">SMTP_AUTH_PASSWORD</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>smtp password<span class="br0">]</span> restart: unless-stopped networks: default: aliases: - <span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span> nginx: image: oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx-buster-wp links: - php - redis ports: - <span class="st0">"127.0.0.1:[port]:80"</span> volumes: - <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span>conf.d:<span class="sy0">/</span>etc<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span>conf.d - <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>nginx<span class="sy0">/</span>cache:<span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>cache<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx - <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>src:<span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>html restart: unless-stopped networks: default: aliases: - nginx.<span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span> cron: image: oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>php74-fpm-wpms-cron links: - php - nginx volumes: - <span class="sy0">/</span>home<span class="sy0">/</span>data<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span><span class="sy0">/</span>src:<span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>html environment: - <span class="re2">SMTP_HOST</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>smtp host<span class="br0">]</span> - <span class="re2">SMTP_PORT</span>=<span class="nu0">587</span> - <span class="re2">SMTP_REPLYTO_EMAIL</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>smtp reply-to email address<span class="br0">]</span> - <span class="re2">SMTP_AUTH_USER</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>smtp user<span class="br0">]</span> - <span class="re2">SMTP_AUTH_PASSWORD</span>=<span class="br0">[</span>smtp password<span class="br0">]</span> restart: unless-stopped networks: default: aliases: - cron.<span class="br0">[</span>domain name<span class="br0">]</span></pre></div></div> <h3><a id="user-content-create-the-nginx-containers-configuration" href="#create-the-nginx-containers-configuration" name="create-the-nginx-containers-configuration" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Create the NGINX container's configuration</h3> <p>In our Docker Compose file, we've specified that our NGINX container will have its configuration in <code>/home/data/[domain name]/nginx/conf.d</code>, so let's put it there.</p> <p>Run the following:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir -p /home/data/[domain name]/nginx/conf.d</code></p> <p>to create the relevant directories, and then create the default configuration for the container:</p> <p><code>sudo nano /home/data/[domain name]/nginx/conf.d/default.conf</code></p> <p>Copy and paste this</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="co0"># Caching configuration</span> <span class="co0"># https://easyengine.io/wordpress-nginx/tutorials/multisite/subdirectories/fastcgi-cache-with-purging/</span> <span class="co0">#</span> fastcgi_cache_path <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>cache<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx <span class="re2">levels</span>=<span class="nu0">1</span>:<span class="nu0">2</span> <span class="re2">keys_zone</span>=WORDPRESS:500m <span class="re2">inactive</span>=60m; fastcgi_cache_key <span class="st0">"<span class="es2">$scheme</span><span class="es2">$request_method</span><span class="es2">$host</span><span class="es2">$request_uri</span>"</span>; fastcgi_cache_use_stale error timeout invalid_header http_500;   <span class="co0"># from https://www.nginx.com/resources/wiki/start/topics/recipes/wordpress/</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># using subdir approach, not subdomain...</span> map <span class="re1">$uri</span> <span class="re1">$blogname</span><span class="br0">{</span> ~^<span class="br0">(</span>?P<span class="sy0">&lt;</span>blogpath<span class="sy0">&gt;/</span><span class="br0">[</span>^<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">]</span>+<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">)</span>files<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">(</span>.<span class="sy0">*</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="re1">$blogpath</span> ; <span class="br0">}</span>   map <span class="re1">$blogname</span> <span class="re1">$blogid</span><span class="br0">{</span> default <span class="re5">-999</span>; <span class="co0">#Ref: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/nginx-helper/</span> include <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>html<span class="sy0">/</span>wp-content<span class="sy0">/</span>uploads<span class="sy0">/</span>nginx-helper<span class="sy0">/</span>map.conf; <span class="br0">}</span>   <span class="co0"># statements for each of your virtual hosts to this file</span> server <span class="br0">{</span> listen <span class="nu0">80</span>; root <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>html; index index.php index.html index.htm;   <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># Caching configuration</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0">#fastcgi_cache start</span> <span class="kw1">set</span> <span class="re1">$skip_cache</span> <span class="nu0">1</span>;   <span class="co0"># POST requests and urls with a query string should always go to PHP</span> <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="br0">(</span><span class="re1">$request_method</span> = POST<span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="kw1">set</span> <span class="re1">$skip_cache</span> <span class="nu0">1</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="br0">(</span><span class="re1">$query_string</span> <span class="sy0">!</span>= <span class="st0">""</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="kw1">set</span> <span class="re1">$skip_cache</span> <span class="nu0">1</span>; <span class="br0">}</span>   <span class="co0"># Don't cache uris containing the following segments</span> <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="br0">(</span><span class="re1">$request_uri</span> ~<span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="st0">"(/wp-admin/|/xmlrpc.php|/wp-(app|cron|login|register|mail).php|wp-.*.php|/feed/|index.php|wp-comments-popup.php|wp-links-opml.php|wp-locations.php|sitemap(_index)?.xml|[a-z0-9_-]+-sitemap([0-9]+)?.xml)"</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="kw1">set</span> <span class="re1">$skip_cache</span> <span class="nu0">1</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="co0"># Don't use the cache for logged in users or recent commenters</span> <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="br0">(</span><span class="re1">$http_cookie</span> ~<span class="sy0">*</span> <span class="st0">"comment_author|wordpress_[a-f0-9]+|wp-postpass|wordpress_no_cache|wordpress_logged_in"</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">{</span> <span class="kw1">set</span> <span class="re1">$skip_cache</span> <span class="nu0">1</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="co0"># end main Caching functionality</span>   <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># Flow of serving pages</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># from https://www.nginx.com/resources/wiki/start/topics/recipes/wordpress/</span>   <span class="co0">#avoid php readfile()</span> location ^~ <span class="sy0">/</span>blogs.dir <span class="br0">{</span> internal; <span class="kw3">alias</span> <span class="sy0">/</span>var<span class="sy0">/</span>www<span class="sy0">/</span>html<span class="sy0">/</span>wp-content<span class="sy0">/</span>blogs.dir; access_log off; log_not_found off; expires max; <span class="br0">}</span>   <span class="kw1">if</span> <span class="br0">(</span><span class="sy0">!</span>-e <span class="re1">$request_filename</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">{</span> rewrite <span class="sy0">/</span>wp-admin$ <span class="re1">$scheme</span>:<span class="sy0">//</span><span class="re1">$host</span><span class="re1">$uri</span><span class="sy0">/</span> permanent; rewrite ^<span class="br0">(</span><span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>^<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">]</span>+<span class="br0">)</span>?<span class="br0">(</span><span class="sy0">/</span>wp-.<span class="sy0">*</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="re4">$2</span> <span class="kw2">last</span>; rewrite ^<span class="br0">(</span><span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>^<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">]</span>+<span class="br0">)</span>?<span class="br0">(</span><span class="sy0">/</span>.<span class="sy0">*</span>\.php<span class="br0">)</span> <span class="re4">$2</span> <span class="kw2">last</span>; <span class="br0">}</span>   <span class="co0"># from https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-install-wordpress-with-nginx-on-ubuntu-14-04</span> <span class="co0"># with other bits from https://premium.wpmudev.org/blog/wordpress-multisite-wordpress-nginx/</span> location <span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="br0">{</span> try_files <span class="re1">$uri</span> <span class="re1">$uri</span><span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="sy0">/</span>index.php?<span class="re1">$args</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> error_page <span class="nu0">404</span> <span class="sy0">/</span><span class="nu0">404</span>.html;   <span class="co0"># Directives to send expires headers and turn off 404 error logging.</span> location ~<span class="sy0">*</span> ^.+\.<span class="br0">(</span>xml<span class="sy0">|</span>ogg<span class="sy0">|</span>ogv<span class="sy0">|</span>svg<span class="sy0">|</span>svgz<span class="sy0">|</span>eot<span class="sy0">|</span>otf<span class="sy0">|</span>woff<span class="sy0">|</span>mp4<span class="sy0">|</span>ttf<span class="sy0">|</span>css<span class="sy0">|</span>rss<span class="sy0">|</span>atom<span class="sy0">|</span>js<span class="sy0">|</span>jpg<span class="sy0">|</span>jpeg<span class="sy0">|</span>gif<span class="sy0">|</span>png<span class="sy0">|</span>ico<span class="sy0">|</span><span class="kw2">zip</span><span class="sy0">|</span>tgz<span class="sy0">|</span>gz<span class="sy0">|</span>rar<span class="sy0">|</span>bz2<span class="sy0">|</span>doc<span class="sy0">|</span>xls<span class="sy0">|</span>exe<span class="sy0">|</span>ppt<span class="sy0">|</span><span class="kw2">tar</span><span class="sy0">|</span>mid<span class="sy0">|</span>midi<span class="sy0">|</span>wav<span class="sy0">|</span>bmp<span class="sy0">|</span>rtf<span class="br0">)</span>$ <span class="br0">{</span> access_log off; log_not_found off; expires max; <span class="br0">}</span>   location ~ \.php$ <span class="br0">{</span> try_files <span class="re1">$uri</span> =<span class="nu0">404</span>; fastcgi_pass php:<span class="nu0">9000</span>; fastcgi_split_path_info ^<span class="br0">(</span>.+\.php<span class="br0">)</span><span class="br0">(</span><span class="sy0">/</span>.+<span class="br0">)</span>$; fastcgi_keep_conn on; fastcgi_index index.php; include fastcgi_params; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME <span class="re1">$document_root</span><span class="re1">$fastcgi_script_name</span>; fastcgi_param PATH_INFO <span class="re1">$fastcgi_path_info</span>; fastcgi_intercept_errors on; fastcgi_buffer_size 128k; fastcgi_buffers <span class="nu0">256</span> 16k; fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 256k; fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k; fastcgi_read_timeout <span class="nu0">500</span>; <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># caching functionality</span> fastcgi_cache_bypass <span class="re1">$skip_cache</span>; fastcgi_no_cache <span class="re1">$skip_cache</span>; fastcgi_cache WORDPRESS; fastcgi_cache_valid 60m; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="co0">#</span> <span class="co0"># caching functionality</span> location ~ <span class="sy0">/</span>purge<span class="br0">(</span><span class="sy0">/</span>.<span class="sy0">*</span><span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">{</span> fastcgi_cache_purge WORDPRESS <span class="st0">"<span class="es2">$scheme</span><span class="es2">$request_method</span><span class="es2">$host</span>$1"</span>; <span class="br0">}</span> location = <span class="sy0">/</span>favicon.ico <span class="br0">{</span> log_not_found off; access_log off; <span class="br0">}</span> location = <span class="sy0">/</span>robots.txt <span class="br0">{</span> allow all; log_not_found off; access_log off; <span class="br0">}</span> location ~ ^<span class="br0">(</span><span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">[</span>^<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">]</span>+<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">)</span>?files<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="br0">(</span>.+<span class="br0">)</span> <span class="br0">{</span> try_files <span class="sy0">/</span>wp-content<span class="sy0">/</span>blogs.dir<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re1">$blogid</span><span class="sy0">/</span>files<span class="sy0">/</span><span class="re4">$2</span> <span class="sy0">/</span>wp-includes<span class="sy0">/</span>ms-files.php?<span class="re2">file</span>=<span class="re4">$2</span> ; access_log off; log_not_found off; expires max; <span class="br0">}</span> <span class="br0">}</span></pre></div></div> <p>and save and exit the file.</p> <p>And now we have to create the following directory and file:</p> <p><code>sudo mkdir -p /home/data/[domain name]/src/wp-content/uploads/nginx-helper</code></p> <p><code>sudo touch /home/data/[domain name]/src/wp-content/uploads/nginx-helper/map.conf</code></p> <p>Once that's done, we're ready to launch our containers... Phew.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-launch-containers" href="#launch-containers" name="launch-containers" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Launch containers</h3> <p>Once that's done you can download the relevant containers (you may need to set up an account on <a href="https://hub.docker.com">https://hub.docker.com</a> first - do that and then run <code>docker login</code> before doing the following):</p> <p><code>docker-compose pull &amp;&amp; docker-compose up -d &amp;&amp; docker-compose logs -f</code></p> <p>which will show you the combined logs of the four containers and should give you some insights if something goes wrong. If all is well, you can type <code>CTRL-C</code> to exit it. The Docker containers (to see what's running, you can run <code>docker-compose ps</code>) will run until you explicitly stop them (<code>docker-compose stop</code>). Unless you stop them prior to lock down, they will automatically restart anytime your server reboots.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-step-six---set-up-your-site" href="#step-six---set-up-your-site" name="step-six---set-up-your-site" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Step Six - set up your site</h2> <h3><a id="user-content-install-wordpress" href="#install-wordpress" name="install-wordpress" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Install WordPress</h3> <p>You should now be able to point your browser at <code>https://[your domain]</code> and you should automatically be redirected to the WordPress site install script, with all the database details already entered. You'll need to fill in the configuration fields and create an admin user.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-enable-the-oeru-course-theme" href="#enable-the-oeru-course-theme" name="enable-the-oeru-course-theme" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Enable the OERu Course theme</h3> <p>You should already be in the <code>/home/docker/[domain name]</code> directory, but if not,</p> <p><code>cd /home/docker/[domain name]</code></p> <p>and then you can enable the OERu Course theme, <code>oeru-course</code>, using WordPress's command line utility, <code>wp</code>, via your PHP container:</p> <p><code>docker-compose exec -u www-data php wp theme enable oeru-course</code></p> <p>You should get the message <code>Success: Enabled the 'OERu Course' theme.</code> if all went well.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-create-an-admin-user" href="#create-an-admin-user" name="create-an-admin-user" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Create an admin user</h3> <p>Your admin user should probably be an account not normally used by a person. I usually create an admin user with a username of 'admin', a random password (using pwgen as above) and a role-based email like webmaster@[domain name] (if your domain name has email services) or some similarly useful generic email (using that protects against the 'tyranny of the individual', e.g. if you leave the organisation in whose interest you're setting up this site, and those left behind will have to make sense of this site and keep it running!</p> <p>Later one, if you want to log into the site, you can always get a login prompt by going to https://[domain name]/admin/ ...</p> <h3><a id="user-content-enable-multisite" href="#enable-multisite" name="enable-multisite" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Enable multisite</h3> <p>The WordPress configuration we've set up in the wp-config.php file should have enabled the inbuilt functionality for enabling 'multisite' mode (or 'network', as it used to be called, i.e. for a "Network of Blogs", back when WordPress was more exclusively used for blogging). <a href="https://wordpress.org/support/article/create-a-network/">WordPress developer documentation on 'Creating a network'</a> might be a useful reference if you run into any trouble.</p> <p>Logged in as your admin user, in the admin menu structure go to Administration &gt;Tools &gt; Network Setup</p> <p>You will be asked ot provide your Network Title and Network Admin Email (which can be the same as your current admin email).</p> <p>You will also be asked whether you want to use the 'Sub-domains' or 'Sub-directories' structure for your network. Select the <strong>Sub-directories</strong> option (you will need to make changes your Nginx configurations and the wp-config.php configuration to use Sub-domains, which are beyond the scope of this howto), which means that each of your subsites will have a separate directory under your main site [domain name]. For example, on the OERu Course site, course.oeru.org, the Learning in a Digital Age 101 course sub-site is course.oeru.org/lida101. If you chose to use the Sub-domain option, you would instead reference that course as lida101.course.oeru.org.</p> <p>Once you've enabled multisite, you need to update your wp-config.php -</p> <p><code>sudo nano wp-config.php</code></p> <p>and make the following change, to comment out the WP_ALLOW_MULTISITE variable, and uncomment the various MULTISITE-related settings:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="sy0">/*</span> Multisite <span class="sy0">*/</span> <span class="sy0">//</span> see https:<span class="sy0">//</span>wordpress.org<span class="sy0">/</span>support<span class="sy0">/</span>article<span class="sy0">/</span>create-a-network<span class="sy0">/</span> <span class="sy0">//</span>define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WP_ALLOW_MULTISITE'</span>, <span class="kw2">true</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'MULTISITE'</span>, <span class="kw2">true</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'SUBDOMAIN_INSTALL'</span>, <span class="kw2">false</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'DOMAIN_CURRENT_SITE'</span>, <span class="st_h">'[domain name]'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'PATH_CURRENT_SITE'</span>, <span class="st_h">'/'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'SITE_ID_CURRENT_SITE'</span>, <span class="nu0">1</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'BLOG_ID_CURRENT_SITE'</span>, <span class="nu0">1</span><span class="br0">)</span>;</pre></div></div> <p>After you've saved that, and refreshed the page on your WordPress site, you should be looking at a fully functioning multisite!</p> <h3><a id="user-content-enable-the-relevant-plugins" href="#enable-the-relevant-plugins" name="enable-the-relevant-plugins" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Enable the relevant plugins</h3> <h3><a id="user-content-third-party-plugins" href="#third-party-plugins" name="third-party-plugins" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Third Party plugins</h3> <p>Now we need to get the specific OERu plugins that are not (yet) available through the WordPress plugin site.</p> <p>The ones we use by default are</p> <p><code> advanced-responsive-video-embedder, check-email, disable-comments, h5p, hypothesis, redis-cache, safe-redirect-manager, unconfirmed, wp-security-audit-log</code></p> <p>As we did with the OERu Course theme, we'll install and active these plugins using WordPress's command line utility, <code>wp</code>, via your PHP container:</p> <p><code>cd /home/docker/[domain name]</code></p> <p>you can see the names of all your running containers by running this:</p> <p><code>docker-compose ps</code></p> <p>and you can download and activate all these plugins in 'network' (aka multisite) mode like this:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">docker-compose <span class="kw3">exec</span> <span class="re5">-u</span> www-data php wp plugin <span class="kw2">install</span> advanced-responsive-video-embedder <span class="re5">--activate-network</span> docker-compose <span class="kw3">exec</span> <span class="re5">-u</span> www-data php wp plugin <span class="kw2">install</span> check-email <span class="re5">--activate-network</span> docker-compose <span class="kw3">exec</span> <span class="re5">-u</span> www-data php wp plugin <span class="kw2">install</span> disable-comments <span class="re5">--activate-network</span> docker-compose <span class="kw3">exec</span> <span class="re5">-u</span> www-data php wp plugin <span class="kw2">install</span> h5p <span class="re5">--activate-network</span> docker-compose <span class="kw3">exec</span> <span class="re5">-u</span> www-data php wp plugin <span class="kw2">install</span> hypothesis <span class="re5">--activate-network</span> docker-compose <span class="kw3">exec</span> <span class="re5">-u</span> www-data php wp plugin <span class="kw2">install</span> redis-cache <span class="re5">--activate-network</span> docker-compose <span class="kw3">exec</span> <span class="re5">-u</span> www-data php wp plugin <span class="kw2">install</span> safe-redirect-manager <span class="re5">--activate-network</span> docker-compose <span class="kw3">exec</span> <span class="re5">-u</span> www-data php wp plugin <span class="kw2">install</span> unconfirmed <span class="re5">--activate-network</span> docker-compose <span class="kw3">exec</span> <span class="re5">-u</span> www-data php wp plugin <span class="kw2">install</span> wp-security-audit-log <span class="re5">--activate-network</span></pre></div></div> <p>These plugins should work as required without any specific configuration, but you're welcome to have a look at what they're doing and tweak them as you see fit.</p> <h3><a id="user-content-oeru-plugins" href="#oeru-plugins" name="oeru-plugins" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>OERu plugins</h3> <p>The final step is to install and enable the custom-developed plugins required to make this WordPress installation meet the requirements of an OERu Course site.</p> <p>At the OERu (and the OER Foundation, who coordinates the OERu and employs me) we make extensive use of Git to manage our source code and to deploy it on our various servers. We'll use it here.</p> <p>You'll need to go back to the plugin directory:</p> <p><code>cd /home/data/[domain name]/src/wp-content/plugins</code></p> <p>and run the following:</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="kw2">sudo</span> <span class="kw2">git clone</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span>git.oeru.org<span class="sy0">/</span>oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>blog-feed-finder.git blog-feed-finder <span class="kw2">sudo</span> <span class="kw2">git clone</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span>git.oeru.org<span class="sy0">/</span>oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>oeru-h5p-tools.git oeru-h5p-tools <span class="kw2">sudo</span> <span class="kw2">git clone</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span>git.oeru.org<span class="sy0">/</span>oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>register-enrol.git register-enrol <span class="kw2">sudo</span> <span class="kw2">git clone</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span>git.oeru.org<span class="sy0">/</span>oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>wenotes.git wenotes <span class="kw2">sudo</span> <span class="kw2">git clone</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span>git.oeru.org<span class="sy0">/</span>oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>wpms-activity-register.git wpms-activity-register <span class="kw2">sudo</span> <span class="kw2">git clone</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span>git.oeru.org<span class="sy0">/</span>oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>wpms-mautic.git wpms-mautic</pre></div></div> <p>and the WEnotes plugin has a further dependency, our WEnotes Aggregator code.</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="kw3">cd</span> wenotes <span class="kw2">sudo</span> <span class="kw2">git clone</span> https:<span class="sy0">//</span>git.oeru.org<span class="sy0">/</span>oeru<span class="sy0">/</span>wenotes-aggregator.git wenotes-aggregator</pre></div></div> <p>We need ot make sure the plugins are all readable by the webserver, so</p> <p><code>cd .. &amp;&amp; sudo chown -R www-data ../plugins</code></p> <p>And we have to make a couple tweaks to configurations of a couple plugins.</p> <h4><a id="user-content-wenotes-tweaks" href="#wenotes-tweaks" name="wenotes-tweaks" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>WEnotes tweaks</h4> <p>You'll want to set your WENOTES_SOURCE_NAME and WENOTES_SOURCE_URL so that your WEnotes are properly attributed.</p> <p>[geshifilter-]cd /home/data/[domain name]/src/wp-content/plugins sudo nano wenotes/wenotes.php [/geshifilter-]</p> <p>and edit the following values (between the ' ') to be suitable for your organisation! Put in your preferred URL as well.</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1">define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WENOTES_SOURCE_NAME'</span>, <span class="st_h">'OERu Course Site'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'WENOTES_SOURCE_URL'</span>, <span class="st_h">'course.oeru.org'</span><span class="br0">)</span>;</pre></div></div> <h4><a id="user-content-register-enrol-tweaks" href="#register-enrol-tweaks" name="register-enrol-tweaks" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Register Enrol tweaks</h4> <p>Similarly, you are likely to want to change the following settings in the Register Enrol plugin configuration to reflect your site and organisation. First, edit <code>register-enrol.php</code></p> <p><code>sudo nano register-enrol/register-enrol.php</code></p> <p>and alter the following values (between the ' ') to suit (we don't recommend change other settings unless you know what you're doing!):</p> <div class="geshifilter"><div class="bash geshifilter-bash"><pre class="de1"><span class="sy0">//</span> support <span class="kw2">link</span> <span class="kw1">for</span> <span class="kw2">users</span> of this plugin... define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'ORE_SUPPORT_FORUM'</span>, <span class="st_h">'https://forums.oeru.org/t/register-enrol'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'ORE_SUPPORT_BLOG'</span>, <span class="st_h">'https://course.oeru.org/support/studying-courses/register-enrol/'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'ORE_SUPPORT_CONTACT'</span>, <span class="st_h">'https://oeru.org/contact-us/'</span><span class="br0">)</span>; define<span class="br0">(</span><span class="st_h">'ORE_SUPPORT_PASSWORD_MANAGER'</span>, <span class="st_h">'https://course.oeru.org/lida102/learning-pathways/digital-environments/online-hygiene/#Password_managers'</span><span class="br0">)</span>;</pre></div></div> <p>and</p> <p>define('ORE_DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL', '<a href="mailto:webmaster@oerfoundation.org">webmaster@oerfoundation.org</a>');</p> <h4><a id="user-content-mautic-integration-tweaks" href="#mautic-integration-tweaks" name="mautic-integration-tweaks" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Mautic Integration tweaks</h4> <p>You might also want to set up an OERu Partner record for your organisation (if you're not already a partner!) in our <a href="https://mautic.com">Mautic</a> integration plugin in the file <code>wpms-mautic/includes/mautic-sync.php</code> in the <code>$partner_names</code> array and then and set your <code>MAUTIC_DEFAULT_PARTNER</code> to have your partner name in <code>wpms-mautic/mautic-app.php</code>.</p> <h4><a id="user-content-reasserting-ownership" href="#reasserting-ownership" name="reasserting-ownership" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Reasserting ownership</h4> <p>And a final step - this is crucial, as it will allow you to keep your WordPress instance up-to-date using the various WordPress standard approaches - is to ensure that the webserver user, <code>www-data</code> is the owner of the source code in your site:</p> <p><code>sudo chown -R www-data /home/data/[domain name]/src</code></p> <p>That's it. Done. Phew.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-step-seven---celebrate" href="#step-seven---celebrate" name="step-seven---celebrate" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Step Seven - celebrate!</h2> <p>You've done it! You've got yourself a new Course WordPress multisite! Which, if I do say so myself, is an impressive accomplishment in it's own right.</p> <p>Of course, it might not be as exciting as actually having a real live course hosted on your Course WordPress multisites... so there's one more step (maybe take a quick break to celebrate getting to this milestone before proceeding).</p> <h2><a id="user-content-snapshotting-your-first-oer-course" href="#snapshotting-your-first-oer-course" name="snapshotting-your-first-oer-course" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Snapshotting your first OER course!</h2> <p>There are quite a few courses (fully accredited!) available to push to your Course multisite on <a href="https://wikieducator.org">WikiEducator</a> where we work with educators around the world to assemble OER-based courses, usually split into discrete 'micro-courses' that can be assembled to meet the credit requirement conventions in different parts of the world.</p> <p>Here is an example course you can add to verify the process: the first micro-course in our (award winning) <a href="">Learning in a digital age</a>, called <a href="https://wikieducator.org/Learning_in_a_digital_age/_Outline_LiDA101">Digital literacies for online learning</a>. That link points to the <em>Outline</em> for the course, which in turn shows all the resources making up the course materials in the hierarchy that will become the navigation of the resulting Course site on your WordPress Multisite. The way e get it there is by using our "<a href="/node/15">Course Snapshot</a>" process which converts that WikiEducator content in the outline into a WordPress content archive that it then pushes onto your designated Course subsite.</p> <p>Before we can run a snapshot, you'll need to</p> <ol><li> <a href="https://wikieducator.org/Special:RequestAccount">request a WikiEducator account</a> - unfortunately this is a moderated process (i.e. a person at the OER Foundation has to review your request) because we have lots of problems with would-be spammers. So this could take a fair while depending on when you request it (we're on NZ time). So much for instant gratification. Sorry about that.</li> <li>you'll need to create a subsite (you don't want to replace your multisite's base site).</li> </ol><p>To do the latter, when you're logged into your WordPress multisite as the admin user, use the top menu to go to 'My Sites' -&gt; 'Network Admin' -&gt; 'Sites' and click the 'Add New' button. You'll need to specify a "Site Address (URL)" which is just the path following [domain name] in referencing your site. For example, the LiDA 101 course on the OERu's Course site is <code>https://course.oeru.org/lida101</code> where <code>lida101</code> is that path. You could use that same path here if you want (it's appropriate for this course).</p> <p>You'll also need a title - you could use "Digital literacies for online learning" - and pick a Site Language (the default is probably what you want). For the 'Admin Email', use the email of your admin user, as WordPress will then make the user with that email, namely your admin user, the administrator of that lida1010 subsite, which is what we want.</p> <p>Next, we go back to the WikiEducator page for the LiDA 101 outline above and find the 'Request snapshot' button near the top of the page. This is the important bit - <strong>Note: doing this will remove any existing content in the subsite you specify! Make sure that's what you're intending</strong> - clicking it will give you a dialog box into which you'll enter the full location of your subsite, which will look like <code>https://[domain name]/[subsite name]</code> (for example, in the OERu case it is <code>https://course.oeru.org/lida101</code>) , making suitable [token] substitutions, of course, and enter as your <em>WordPress</em> admin user and password. Clicking "Push snapshot to WordPress" sets things in motion, and, all going well, you should receive an email in a few minutes (5-20, usually) when the system has got to your request (it does them on a first-come, first-served basis) and processed it successfully. If you get that email, have another look at your site! It should look very similar to what you see on <code>https://course.oeru.org/lida101</code> with the main difference being (possibly) the colour scheme and the lack of a Login/Register prompt (top right). That can be fixed as I explain next.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-enabling-oerus-register-enrol-functionality" href="#enabling-oerus-register-enrol-functionality" name="enabling-oerus-register-enrol-functionality" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Enabling OERu's Register Enrol functionality</h2> <p>The interface the OER Foundation has developed to help learners register for the site and enrol in specific courses is not enabled by default and needs to be turned on for any given Course sub-site (this is useful for courses that are visible on the site, but not yet ready to accept enrolments). To do so, go to the relevant course site dashboard in the WordPress menu, and select Appearance -&gt; Customize. In the resulting theme customisation side panel, selelct 'Site Navigation', and then set 'Show the login option?' to 'Yes' and 'Publish' to save the setting. Your login prompt should show near the top right corner of all the pages <em>in that course site</em> at that point.</p> <p>Also note, you can change the pre-set colour palette for your course sites on a per-site basis using the menu combination OERu Theme -&gt; Colour Scheme...</p> <h2><a id="user-content-data-backups" href="#data-backups" name="data-backups" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Data Backups</h2> <p>Your MariaDB will already be getting backed up daily via the <code>automysqlbackup</code> script installed towards the start of this process, but you also want to have backups of files and configurations on your server, and you want to have <em>backups on a different server</em>, i.e. remote to your server, as a matter of disaster-recovery prudence.</p> <p>We will be describing how we do remote, encrypted, incremental backups in a separate how-to and will link to it here as soon as it's available.</p> <h2><a id="user-content-staying-up-to-date" href="#staying-up-to-date" name="staying-up-to-date" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Staying up-to-date</h2> <p>You should log into your site as your admin user or as your personal user (granted Administrator permissions by your admin user!) periodically to see if there are any updates available for your site - if there are, you can update them as per the instructions provided by the site.</p> <p>The OERu plugins and themes undergo periodic improvements or bug fixes. To find out about them, you'll need to keep track of the various Git repositories on <a href="https://git.oeru.org/explore/projects">our Gitlab instance</a>.</p> <p>These are the relevant repositories:</p> <ul><li> <a href="https://git.oeru.org/oeru/oeru_course">OERu's Course Theme</a> </li> <li> <a href="https://git.oeru.org/oeru/blog-feed-finder">OERu's Blog Feed Finder</a> </li> <li> <a href="https://git.oeru.org/oeru/oeru-h5p-tools">OERu's H5P tools</a> </li> <li> <a href="https://git.oeru.org/oeru/register-enrol">OERu's Register Enrol</a> </li> <li> <a href="https://git.oeru.org/oeru/wenotes">OERu's WEnotes</a> </li> <li> <a href="https://git.oeru.org/oeru/wenotes-aggregator">OERu's WEnotes Aggregator</a> </li> <li> <a href="https://git.oeru.org/oeru/wpms-activity-register">OERu's Activity Register</a> </li> <li> <a href="https://git.oeru.org/oeru/wpms-mautic">OERu's Mautic Integration</a> </li> </ul><p>We're always delighted to <a href="/contact">hear from folks</a> using any of these components and invite people to collaborate with us on improving any and all of these software projects, including providing access to our Gitlab!</p> <p>Also, from time to time, we might update the Docker containers we use for this service, and you're always welcome to make use of our updated containers. If you have any questions, feel free to <a href="/contact">get in touch</a> or leave a comment below!!</p> <h2><a id="user-content-acknowledgements" href="#acknowledgements" name="acknowledgements" class="heading-permalink" aria-hidden="true" title="Permalink"></a>Acknowledgements</h2> <p>Many thanks to the good folks at the Samoan Ministry for Education, Sport, and Culture and UNESCO in Apia for motivating me to write this up, and to educational technologist luminary <a href="https://downes.ca">Stephen Downes</a> for unexpectedly finding this tutorial and then (even more unexpectedly) heroically and comprehensively going through it and providing extensive editorial input (<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBTkZvKf080">part 1</a> and <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rqryD1Qi-ws">part 2</a>), most (if not all) of which I've since incorporated! Thanks Stephen - see people were listening (just not in real-time)!</p></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a> <div class="comment-form-wrapper"> <h2 class="comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=38&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="pD7Al-LnIZTaG3QCT3T8JzCIHMbfkyXNmQSpAk-VQmo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </section> Tue, 24 Aug 2021 04:00:22 +0000 dave 38 at http://tech.oeru.org